We are pleased to provide you with comprehensive information about agriculture and farming practices. As a leading source of information for those interested in agriculture, we strive to provide the most accurate and up-to-date information available. Here in this Agriculture dictionary , we will discuss various agricultural terms and practices, and provide detailed information that can help you make informed decisions about your farming activities.
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The science, art, and business of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The integration of trees and shrubs into farming systems to create environmental, economic, and social benefits.
The branch of agriculture that deals with the study of crops and their cultivation.
The business of agricultural production, processing, and distribution.
A leguminous plant with clover-like leaves and bluish-purple flowers, grown as a forage crop.
The farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, and seaweed.
The care, breeding, and management of domestic animals, especially farm animals.
Land suitable for growing crops.
Referring to a plant that completes its life cycle within one growing season.
Chemicals used in agriculture, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.
The breakdown of organic material by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen, resulting in biogas and nutrient-rich digestate.
The transfer of knowledge and technology from researchers to farmers, aimed at improving agricultural productivity and sustainability.
The process of introducing air into soil to improve soil structure and promote plant growth.
The process of combining small particles into larger ones, often used in the production of fertilizers and animal feeds.
The ability of plants to release chemicals that inhibit the growth of other plants.
Referring to a substance that is without water, often used to describe fertilizers.
The ability of bacteria to resist the effects of antibiotics, often caused by overuse or misuse of these drugs in agriculture and medicine.
A fruit of the apple tree, widely grown and consumed as food.
The process of introducing semen into the reproductive tract of a female animal using a medical instrument, rather than natural mating.
A soil type found in tropical and subtropical regions, characterized by high fertility and good water-holding capacity.
A colorless gas with a pungent odor, used in many industrial and household applications, and as a fertilizer.
The scientific study of grasses.
The application of technology to agricultural production, such as the use of drones and precision agriculture.
The designation of areas for specific agricultural uses, such as farming, grazing, or forestry.
The study of ecological processes in agriculture, emphasizing the interdependence of human, animal, and environmental systems.
The study of the impact of weather and climate on agricultural production.
The intentional use of biological agents, such as pathogens or toxins, to harm agricultural systems and food supplies.
Relating to agriculture, rural life, or land ownership.
A genus of annual and perennial plants in the carnation family, commonly known as corncockles.
French term for agroforestry.
The industry that processes and transforms agricultural products into value-added goods, such as food, textiles, and biofuels.
The practice of attracting tourists to rural areas for farm-related activities, such as picking fruit, animal husbandry, and wine tasting.
A system of plants, animals, and microorganisms in an agricultural environment, and the interactions between them.
The study of soils in relation to agriculture, including their properties, classification, and management.
The processing of agricultural products into value-added goods, such as food, fuel, and fiber.
The ability of pests and weeds to resist the effects of agrochemicals, often caused by overuse or misuse of these products.
The benefits provided by agroecosystems to human society, such as food production, water conservation, and biodiversity conservation.
A farming system that emphasizes the integration of ecological principles into agricultural production, to enhance sustainability and resilience.
The techniques and methods used in crop production, such as fertilization, irrigation, and pest control.
The various combinations of trees and crops or livestock, used in agroforestry to enhance productivity and sustainability.
The industry that processes and transforms agricultural products into value-added goods, such as food, fuel, and fiber.
The application of ecological principles and techniques to manage agroecosystems for sustainability and resilience.
The business of agricultural production, including farming, processing, and marketing.
The application of ecological design principles to agricultural systems, to optimize resource use, enhance productivity, and promote biodiversity.
The intentional integration of trees and crops or livestock in agricultural landscapes, to enhance productivity, environmental conservation, and social benefits.
The transfer of agricultural knowledge and technologies to farmers, through training, education, and demonstration.
The process of restoring degraded agricultural landscapes using ecological principles and techniques, to enhance biodiversity, soil fertility, and productivity.
The capacity of agroecosystems to produce food, fiber, fuel, and other products, while maintaining ecological integrity and social benefits.
The process of shifting from conventional agricultural practices to agroecological practices, to enhance sustainability and resilience.
The capacity of agroecosystems to withstand and recover from disturbances, such as droughts, floods, pests, and diseases, while maintaining productivity and biodiversity.
The variety of living organisms in a particular ecosystem.
A fuel made from renewable biological resources, such as crops or waste material.
The use of living organisms or biological processes to develop or improve agricultural products and practices.
A pest that feeds on cotton bolls and can cause significant damage to cotton crops.
A Japanese art form that involves growing and training small trees in containers.
A type of farming that involves cultivating large areas of land for crops or livestock.
An infectious bacterial disease that affects cattle and other livestock, as well as humans.
A type of non-vascular plant that includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
A genetically modified variety of cotton that produces a toxin to protect against insect pests.
A large, hairy bee that plays an important role in pollinating crops and other plants.
A unit of measurement for agricultural commodities, usually referring to grain or produce.
Marine animals caught unintentionally while fishing for a different species.
A type of farming that emphasizes holistic approaches to soil, plant, and animal health.
A type of annual legume used for forage and as a cover crop.
The process of compressing hay or straw into tight, compacted bundles for storage or transport.
A substance that enhances plant growth and health through non-nutrient mechanisms.
A bacterial disease that affects cruciferous plants such as cabbage and can cause significant crop loss.
A type of moth larva that feeds on cotton bolls and can cause significant damage to cotton crops.
A measure of the sugar content of a plant or fruit, often used to determine ripeness or quality.
A method of sowing seeds by scattering them evenly over a large area.
An area of vegetation, such as grass or trees, located between agricultural fields or other land uses and a body of water, such as a stream, river, or lake. The purpose of a buffer strip is to filter sediment, nutrients, and pollutants from surface runoff, which helps to protect water quality and aquatic habitat. Buffer strips also provide other benefits, such as erosion control, wildlife habitat, and aesthetic value.
The percentage of fat in milk, often used as an indicator of quality.
An insect that provides benefits to crops and other plants by pollinating, controlling pests, or improving soil health.
Organic matter, such as wood chips, crop residues, or manure, that can be used as a fuel source or to produce energy.
A grain-like crop used for human consumption and as a cover crop.
A disease that affects a variety of plants and is caused by bacterial infection.
A plant that is grown and sold for ornamental use in gardens or landscaping.
The use of living organisms, such as beneficial insects or microbial agents, to control pests and diseases in crops.
The process by which certain bacteria in the soil convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants.
A pesticide derived from natural plant sources, such as pyrethrum or neem oil.
Water that is a mix of freshwater and seawater, often found in coastal areas or estuaries.
A pesticide that is effective against a wide range of pests and is not specific to a particular species.
A former industrial or commercial site that is contaminated and requires environmental remediation before it can be redeveloped.
A modified stem or leaf structure that stores food for a plant and produces new growth.
The practice of mowing down overgrown vegetation in fields and pastures with a heavy-duty rotary mower.
A type of protein in livestock feed that is not fully digested in the rumen, but is instead used by the animal’s lower digestive system.
A type of haylage, made by baling wet forage and wrapping it in plastic to ferment.
A person or company that specializes in breeding and developing new varieties of plants or animals for agricultural purposes.
A bacterial disease that affects a variety of plants, including crucifers and grapevines, and can cause significant crop loss.
A type of farming that emphasizes the holistic approach of treating the farm as a living organism, integrating spiritual, ecological, and social principles in its practices.
A type of fertilizer that contains living microorganisms that help improve soil health and plant growth.
A microscopic worm that helps control pests and diseases in plants by infecting and killing harmful insects and fungi.
A type of fruit that is typically small, juicy, and has a soft texture, such as strawberries, raspberries, or blueberries.
A common fern species that can be toxic to livestock if ingested in large amounts.
A naturally occurring hormone in cows that stimulates milk production and can be artificially produced and used in dairy production.
The weight of soil per unit volume, often used as an indicator of soil quality and fertility.
A fungal disease that affects cereal crops, causing stunted growth and reduced yield.
A unit of measurement for agricultural commodities, such as grain or fruit, equivalent to 4 pecks or 32 quarts.
A planting method that involves creating raised beds of soil to improve drainage, aeration, and soil quality for growing crops.
A mixture of decaying organic matter, such as leaves, grass, and food scraps, used as a soil amendment to improve soil quality and fertility.
A farming practice that involves alternating the types of crops grown in a specific field each season to improve soil health and reduce pest and disease pressure.
A variety of plant that has been bred and selected for specific traits, such as disease resistance or yield.
A crop planted between main crops to protect and improve the soil, prevent erosion, and suppress weeds.
A farming practice that involves minimizing soil disturbance during tillage to reduce erosion and improve soil health.
The amount of a crop harvested per unit of land, typically measured in bushels or tons per acre.
Grasses grown for their edible grains, such as wheat, oats, and barley.
The plant material remaining in the field after harvest, which can be left on the soil surface as mulch or incorporated into the soil as organic matter.
Crops grown for commercial purposes, such as soybeans, corn, and cotton.
A condition in plants where the leaves turn yellow due to nutrient deficiency or disease.
A farming practice that aims to conserve natural resources, such as soil, water, and biodiversity, through sustainable and efficient use of resources.
A type of insurance that provides financial protection for crop losses due to weather, pests, or other factors.
The husks and straw left over after threshing grain.
The green pigment in plants that is essential for photosynthesis, the process of converting light energy into chemical energy.
The process of capturing and storing carbon from the atmosphere in soils, plants, or other natural systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.
A U.S. government program that pays farmers to take environmentally sensitive land out of production and plant it with native vegetation to improve soil health and wildlife habitat.
A marketplace where agricultural commodities, such as grains, livestock, and cotton, are traded as futures contracts or options.
The ability of soil to hold and exchange positively charged ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, which are essential for plant growth.
A farming practice that involves growing a variety of crops on a farm to reduce risk and increase profitability.
A crop that is planted primarily to help manage soil erosion, fertility, and quality by providing a protective cover during the off-season or between regular crop rotations.
A cultivated variety of a plant species that has been selected for specific desirable characteristics, such as yield, disease resistance, and flavor.
The process of preparing, planting, and caring for crops to promote their growth and yield.
A method of planting different crops in a particular sequence on the same field over time to improve soil health and fertility, prevent soil-borne diseases, and reduce pests and weeds.
A natural process that involves breaking down organic materials, such as plant residues, food waste, and animal manure, into a nutrient-rich soil amendment through the action of microorganisms and earthworms.
The amount of crops produced per unit area of land or per unit of input, such as seed, fertilizer, and water, during a specific period of time.
A set of practices that reduce soil disturbance during planting and cultivation to improve soil health, reduce erosion, and conserve soil moisture and nutrients.
A yellowing of plant leaves caused by a lack of chlorophyll, which is essential for photosynthesis and plant growth.
A label given to agricultural products that have been produced according to specific organic standards and regulations, which prohibit the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
A mixture of grains, forages, and supplements that is given to cattle to meet their nutritional needs and improve their growth, health, and productivity.
A hard, compacted layer of soil on the surface of the ground that forms when the soil is subjected to rain, wind, or other physical forces.
An insurance policy that provides financial protection to farmers against crop losses due to natural disasters, such as drought, floods, and pests.
A federal program that pays farmers to plant grasses, trees, or other vegetation on environmentally sensitive land to improve soil health, reduce erosion, and enhance wildlife habitat.
The uppermost layer of leaves, branches, and stems of a plant that forms a continuous cover over the ground.
The process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in plants, soils, and other organic matter to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.
A legal agreement between a landowner and a conservation organization or government agency that limits certain uses or development on a piece of land to protect its natural resources, such as wildlife habitat, farmland, or open space.
A type of beef cattle production system in which a farmer or rancher raises cows to give birth to calves, which are sold or raised for meat.
A farming technique that involves planting crops across the slope of the land, rather than up and down, to reduce soil erosion and improve water retention.
A method of growing crops in a controlled environment, such as a greenhouse or indoor facility, to optimize growth conditions and increase yields.
A technique of using cover crops as a mulch to protect soil from erosion, suppress weed growth, and improve soil fertility by adding organic matter when the cover crop is mowed or tilled into the soil.
A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall that causes a water shortage and negatively impacts crops, livestock, and the environment.
A type of farming that involves the production and processing of milk and milk products, typically from cows, but also from goats, sheep, or other animals.
The clearing of forests or woodlands, often for agricultural or commercial purposes, which can lead to soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and increased greenhouse gas emissions.
A farming practice that involves growing two crops in the same field in a single growing season, often achieved by planting a second crop immediately after harvesting the first.
A type of farming that relies solely on rainfall for irrigation, rather than using supplemental water sources, such as irrigation systems.
Refers to trees or plants that lose their leaves annually, typically in the fall, as a response to changing seasons and weather conditions.
A planting technique that involves sowing seeds directly into the soil rather than transplanting seedlings, which can save time and money and reduce the risk of transplant shock.
The organic matter that remains after anaerobic digestion of animal manure, food waste, or other organic materials, which can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer.
The weight of plant material, such as leaves or stems, after it has been dried to remove all moisture, which is often used to estimate biomass or nutrient content.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with cameras or sensors that can be used for crop monitoring, mapping, or spraying.
A watering system that delivers a slow, steady drip of water directly to the roots of plants, reducing water waste and improving plant health.
The removal of horns from livestock, such as cows or goats, to prevent injuries or aggression towards other animals or handlers.
Refers to plants or crops that can survive and thrive in areas with low rainfall or limited water availability.
A type of soil salinity caused by the buildup of salt in the soil due to low rainfall and high evaporation rates, which can negatively impact plant growth and soil fertility.
Animal excrement, such as cow dung or chicken manure, that can be used as a fertilizer or soil amendment.
An agricultural machine used to remove moisture from crops, such as grain or hay, to improve storage quality and prevent mold growth.
The boundary around a tree or plant where drip irrigation is applied, typically marked by a series of drip emitters or tubing.
A tax deduction available to farmers and landowners for the gradual depletion of natural resources, such as soil fertility or timber resources, due to their use in farming operations.
A soil preparation technique that involves digging down two spade lengths and loosening the soil to improve drainage, aeration, and root growth.
An animal, such as a horse or ox, used for plowing fields, hauling loads, or other agricultural tasks, typically powered by their physical strength and endurance.
A method of planting seeds directly into the soil without first starting them in pots or trays, often used for crops such as vegetables, grains, or wildflowers.
A type of farming focused on producing milk and milk-based products from cows, goats, or other lactating animals.
A period of slowed or suspended growth in plants or crops, typically during the winter months, as a response to environmental conditions such as cold temperatures or decreased sunlight.
A type of farming practiced in arid regions, relying on natural rainfall and minimal irrigation to cultivate crops that can tolerate dry conditions.
A historical period in the 1930s when severe drought and poor land management practices led to massive dust storms and soil erosion across the Great Plains of the United States, causing significant damage to agriculture and ecosystems.
The organic matter left over after the anaerobic digestion of organic waste, which can be used as a fertilizer or soil amendment due to its high nutrient content.
The ability of plants or crops to resist or tolerate diseases caused by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi, without requiring the use of chemical pesticides or treatments.
A long, narrow channel dug into the ground for the purpose of draining water or irrigating crops, often lined with concrete or other materials to prevent erosion.
The process of drying out or removing moisture from a plant or crop, either naturally or through artificial means, often used for preserving or processing purposes.
The scientific study of tree rings to determine the age, growth patterns, and environmental history of trees, often used in agriculture and forestry research.
The process of removing excess water from the soil, often through the use of drainage systems such as ditches or underground pipes, to prevent waterlogging and promote plant growth.
A farming practice where two crops are grown on the same plot of land during a single growing season, often in succession or rotation, to increase crop yield and land productivity.
A type of irrigation system that delivers water directly to the roots of plants through a network of small tubes or hoses, reducing water waste and improving water efficiency.
The intentional or unintentional removal of leaves from plants or crops, often to manage pests or diseases, promote regrowth, or prepare for harvest.
A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall or moisture levels, leading to water scarcity, crop failure, and other negative impacts on agriculture and ecosystems.
The process of reducing or preventing the amount of dust or airborne particles released during agricultural activities such as tilling, harvesting, or processing, often through the use of water or other materials.
The extent to which a plant or crop can be broken down and absorbed by animals or humans, often used as a measure of nutritional value or feed quality.
A marketing strategy where farmers or producers sell their products directly to consumers through channels such as farmers’ markets, community-supported agriculture (CSA) programs, or online platforms, bypassing intermediaries such as wholesalers or retailers.
The ability of plants or crops to withstand or adapt to drought conditions, often through genetic traits or environmental adaptations, reducing the need for irrigation and other water-intensive practices.
A period of abnormally low rainfall or moisture levels, often shorter in duration than a full drought, but still capable of causing water scarcity, crop stress, and other negative impacts on agriculture and ecosystems.
A farming technique that relies on natural precipitation and soil moisture retention, rather than irrigation or other water-intensive practices, to grow crops in areas with low rainfall or limited water resources.
The process of soil or land becoming degraded or damaged due to human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, or intensive farming, leading to reduced productivity, biodiversity loss, and other negative impacts on the environment and society.
The process of removing or reducing the amount of toxins or harmful substances in crops or soil, often through biological or chemical means, to improve plant health and food safety.
The weight of plant or crop material after all moisture has been removed, often used as a measure of biomass or yield.
A farming practice where soil is tilled or plowed to a greater depth than usual, often to break up compacted soil, improve water infiltration, or prepare soil for planting.
The use of digital technologies such as sensors, drones, and data analytics to optimize and automate agricultural processes such as crop monitoring, irrigation management, and yield forecasting.
A planting method where seeds are sown directly into the soil, rather than being transplanted or started in containers, often to save time, labor, and resources.
The practice of growing multiple crops or using multiple farming techniques or products, often to spread risk, improve resilience, or enhance soil health and biodiversity.
Refers to plants or crops that are adapted to or bred for drought conditions, often with traits such as deep roots, water-storing tissues, or reduced water needs.
Refers to crops or livestock that can be used for multiple purposes, such as both meat and milk production, or both grain and forage production.
The part of the cereal plant that contains the grain or seed.
A method of cultivation in which soil is mounded around the base of a plant, often used to control weeds or to promote the growth of tubers or roots.
A small plastic or metal tag that is attached to the ear of an animal, often used to identify the animal or track its movement.
A legal right to use someone else’s land for a specific purpose, such as access to a road or utility line.
The process by which an ecosystem changes over time as different species become dominant and others become extinct.
The practice of labeling products with information about their environmental impact, such as their energy efficiency or carbon footprint.
A community of living organisms and their physical environment, interacting as a complex and dynamic system.
A parasite that lives on the external surface of a host organism, such as a tick or lice.
The influence that the edge of an ecosystem has on the conditions and species within it, often resulting in a transition zone between different habitats.
The practice of designing and planting landscapes that include edible plants, such as fruit trees, herbs, and vegetables.
The ability to achieve maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or resources.
A plant of the nightshade family that produces edible fruit, typically purple or black in color.
A high-quality cotton produced in Egypt, known for its long fibers and soft texture.
A synthetic or natural material with elastic properties, often used in the production of rubber products.
A barrier that uses an electric shock to deter animals or people from crossing a boundary.
A substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water or melted, often used in batteries or as a supplement for athletes.
A type of energy that travels through space as waves of electric and magnetic fields, such as light, radio waves, and X-rays.
The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation, from radio waves to gamma rays.
A type of microscope that uses a beam of electrons to magnify an image, often used to view the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
The computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders and invoices, in a standardized format.
A machine used to move people or goods vertically between floors or levels of a building. In agriculture, it refers to a machine used to lift and transport grain, crops, or other materials vertically.
A deciduous tree of the Ulmaceae family, typically having a broad crown and serrated leaves. Elm trees are often planted as shade trees or used for ornamental purposes.
A surgical instrument used to castrate male animals by crushing and cutting the spermatic cords.
A reproductive technique used in livestock breeding and assisted reproductive technology where an embryo is collected from a donor female and transferred into the reproductive tract of a recipient female to establish pregnancy.
A harvest that is conducted earlier than planned due to unforeseen circumstances such as weather conditions, disease outbreak, or pest infestation.
A substance, often in the form of a cream or lotion, that soothes, softens, and moisturizes the skin.
A substance that promotes the mixing of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible, such as oil and water, by reducing the surface tension at their interface.
A hard, shiny, protective coating that is applied to metal, glass, or ceramics, often used in the production of kitchenware, appliances, or dental materials.
A species or disease that is native or restricted to a particular geographic region or habitat.
A type of leafy green vegetable that is a member of the chicory family, often used in salads or as a cooked vegetable.
A fungus or bacteria that lives within a plant without causing harm to its host, often providing benefits such as increased resistance to stress, pathogens, or pests.
The starchy tissue that surrounds the embryo in a seed, providing nutrients for its growth and development.
The layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, playing a role in regulating blood flow, blood clotting, and immune responses.
Crops that are grown specifically for their use as a source of renewable energy, such as biofuels or biomass.
The scientific study of insects and their interactions with humans, animals, plants, and the environment.
A type of protein that acts as a biological catalyst, speeding up chemical reactions in living organisms.
A type of soil that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown sediment, often found in arid and semi-arid regions.
A worm commonly found in soil that helps to break down organic matter and improve soil structure.
A type of sustainable agriculture that prioritizes the use of natural resources and minimizing environmental impact.
A biological community of living organisms and their interactions with their environment.
Food that is safe for consumption.
The ability to produce a maximum yield with minimum inputs, often measured as the ratio of output to input.
The use of electricity to power farm equipment, machinery, or systems, often as a means of reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
An undeveloped plant or animal organism in its earliest stage of development, typically consisting of a few cells.
The process by which a plant breaks through the soil surface and begins to grow above ground, often triggered by environmental cues such as temperature or moisture.
Crops grown specifically for use as a fuel source, such as ethanol or biodiesel, often as a means of reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
The scientific study of insects, including their biology, behavior, and ecology.
The physical, biological, and social surroundings in which an organism operates.
The natural process by which soil or rock is worn away by water, wind, or other agents.
A large agricultural property, often used for farming or ranching.
A type of alcohol made from grains, sugarcane, or other plant materials, commonly used as a fuel.
The process by which liquid water is converted to water vapor and released into the atmosphere.
The process of transferring knowledge, skills, and technology from agricultural experts to farmers and rural communities.
Costs or benefits associated with agricultural production or consumption that are not reflected in market prices.
A substance added to soil or crops to increase their growth and yield.
A plot of land, along with its buildings and other structures, used for agricultural purposes.
A field or plot of land that is left uncultivated for a period of time to allow the soil to rest and recover its nutrients.
Food, such as hay or silage, used for livestock.
A group of microorganisms that can cause plant diseases or be used in beneficial ways such as breaking down organic matter.
The cultivation and sale of flowers and ornamental plants.
A long, narrow trench made in soil to plant crops or facilitate irrigation.
A facility where livestock are fed high-energy feed to promote rapid growth prior to slaughter.
A tree that produces fruit that is edible for humans or animals.
A method of raising livestock where they have access to roam and graze freely outdoors.
The science and practice of cultivating, managing, and harvesting forests for timber or other purposes.
The process of using chemicals or gases to control pests or diseases in crops or stored products.
Legislation passed by the U.S. Congress every five years that sets policies and funding levels for agriculture and nutrition programs.
A physical marketplace where farmers directly sell their fresh produce and other farm products to consumers.
A food production and consumption movement that emphasizes the use of locally sourced, sustainable ingredients.
A weather event that occurs when the temperature drops below freezing, potentially causing damage to crops or other vegetation.
A method of delivering fertilizers to crops through irrigation systems.
A crop that is grown for its fiber and seeds, which are used for textiles, food, and other products.
The process by which flowers on fruit trees are fertilized and begin to develop into fruit.
A chemical substance used to kill or prevent the growth of fungi that can damage crops or other vegetation.
A confined area where livestock, typically cattle, are fed a high-energy diet to promote rapid weight gain before slaughter.
A period of time when farmland is left unplanted to allow the soil to rest and regenerate.
A farm and its buildings, including the farmhouse, barns, and other structures.
The state of having access to enough nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.
A system of animal husbandry where animals are allowed to move freely outdoors rather than being confined to pens or cages.
The upward movement of soil and plant material caused by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing.
A shallow trench made in soil for planting seeds or irrigation.
The process by which plants produce flowers, which can develop into fruit or seeds.
A program that connects local farmers with schools to provide fresh, healthy food for school meals and educational opportunities for students.
A method of pest control that involves filling an enclosed space with a toxic gas to kill insects or other pests.
The process of organizing and overseeing the operations of a farm to maximize productivity and profitability.
A measure of an animal’s efficiency in converting feed into body weight gain.
A sustainable land-use system that combines the cultivation of crops under the canopy of a managed forest ecosystem.
A type of tobacco that is cured in a barn using heat generated by a wood or gas-fired heater.
A measure of the distance that food travels from the place where it is produced to the place where it is consumed.
A type of fungus that can cause disease in plants and produce harmful toxins.
The process by which microorganisms, such as yeast or bacteria, convert sugars into alcohol or organic acids.
The act of leaving farmland unplanted for a period of time to restore soil fertility or control weeds.
Any food that is discarded, uneaten, or spoiled.
A method of fertilizing plants by spraying a liquid fertilizer directly onto their leaves.
Measures taken to prevent or minimize damage to crops caused by frost, such as covering them with blankets or sprinkling them with water.
A movement that emphasizes the use of locally sourced, seasonal, and sustainable food in restaurants and other food service establishments.
A method of irrigation in which water is distributed in shallow channels or furrows between crop rows.
A type of grass commonly used in pastures and lawns.
A comprehensive piece of legislation that addresses various agricultural and food-related issues, such as crop insurance, conservation, and nutrition programs.
The state of having reliable access to sufficient, affordable, and nutritious food.
Food for livestock, such as hay, silage, or pasture grasses.
A market where farmers sell their fresh produce and other agricultural products directly to consumers.
The buildings and surrounding land that make up a farm, including the farmhouse, barns, and other structures.
A structure used for growing plants in a controlled environment, usually made of glass or plastic.
The process of altering an organism’s genetic material to introduce desired traits or characteristics.
A widely used herbicide that is effective at killing weeds and other unwanted vegetation.
The practice of allowing livestock to feed on grass or other vegetation in a pasture or range.
The process by which a plant’s seed begins to grow and develop into a seedling.
Water that is located beneath the earth’s surface in porous rock formations or aquifers.
A crop that is grown specifically to be tilled back into the soil to improve its fertility and structure.
A horticultural technique in which a stem or bud from one plant is inserted into the stem or rootstock of another plant, resulting in a new plant with desirable traits.
The process of sorting agricultural products by quality, size, or other characteristics.
The edible seeds of cereal crops, such as wheat, corn, or rice.
The practice of collecting leftover crops from fields after the harvest is complete.
An organism that has been genetically modified using modern biotechnology techniques.
A period of significant agricultural productivity improvement in the 20th century, characterized by the use of high-yielding crop varieties, irrigation, and fertilizers.
The period of the year when the climate is suitable for plant growth and development.
Low-growing plants or crops that cover the soil surface, preventing erosion and improving soil health.
A facility used for storing, cleaning, and distributing grain crops.
A person or business that grows and produces agricultural products.
The process of removing roots and stumps of trees or other vegetation from the ground.
A mineral commonly used in agriculture as a soil conditioner or fertilizer.
A measure of the total economic output of a country or region, including the value of agricultural products.
The practice of allowing animals, typically livestock, to feed on vegetation in a specific area.
A structure used for growing plants in a controlled environment, typically made of glass or plastic.
Water that is stored underground in the soil or rock, often used for irrigation in agriculture.
A chemical compound used in agriculture to control the growth and development of plants.
A group of plant or animal species that work together in a mutually beneficial way in an ecosystem.
The process of sorting agricultural products by size, quality, or other criteria.
A cover crop grown specifically to improve soil fertility, typically plowed under before it reaches maturity.
The process by which a seed begins to grow and develop into a plant.
A seed or fruit of a cereal crop, such as wheat, rice, or corn.
The variety of genetic material within a species, which is essential for adaptation and resilience in agriculture.
A widely used herbicide in agriculture to control weeds.
The process of joining the tissues of two plants to create a new plant with desirable traits.
The process of soil erosion caused by the concentrated flow of water, which creates deep channels or gullies.
Plants grown to cover and protect the soil, typically used for erosion control or weed suppression.
The period of the year when the climate is suitable for crop growth and development.
The material in which plants are grown, such as soil, compost, or hydroponic solution.
A machine used in agriculture to dry and reduce the moisture content of grain before storage or transportation.
The process of separating cotton fibers from the seeds and other impurities.
The process by which water is added to an aquifer or underground water storage.
The process of removing stumps and roots from land to prepare it for cultivation.
A cover crop that is grown specifically to be tilled into the soil to improve its fertility and organic matter content.
The practice of allowing livestock to feed on pastures or other natural vegetation. .
A structure used for growing plants in a controlled environment, typically with glass or plastic walls and roof.
The process of altering the DNA of an organism to introduce new traits, such as increased yield or resistance to pests or diseases.
An area dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants, typically used for grazing or hay production.
The genetic material of a plant, including seeds, tissue cultures, and other reproductive material, used for breeding or conservation purposes.
A period of agricultural innovation and technological advancement in the mid-20th century that resulted in increased crop yields and productivity.
Water that exists underground in aquifers and is often used for irrigation in agriculture.
The seeds of cereal crops such as wheat, rice, and corn, used for food, animal feed, and other industrial purposes. .
A measure of heat accumulation over time used to predict the development and maturity of crops.
The natural environment in which a plant or animal species typically lives.
A hard, compacted layer of soil that restricts root growth and water infiltration.
The process of collecting mature crops from the field.
Dried grass or other plants used as animal feed.
A strip of land at the end of a field used for turning farm machinery.
A line of trees, bushes or other plants grown to mark a boundary or provide shelter for crops or livestock.
Referring to plants with soft, green stems that die back at the end of the growing season.
A substance used to kill or control weeds.
Referring to an organism with two different alleles for a particular gene.
A type of greenhouse used for growing crops in a protected environment.
The process of creating a mound of soil around the base of a plant to provide support and protection.
The hard, horny covering on the foot of an animal, such as a horse or cow.
The organic matter in soil created by the decomposition of plant and animal material.
An organism produced by crossing two different varieties or species.
The method of growing plants in a nutrient-rich water solution rather than soil.
A condition in which there is a deficiency of oxygen in the soil or water, leading to reduced plant growth and productivity.
A unit of measurement for land area, equivalent to 10,000 square meters.
A sweet, sticky substance produced by aphids and other sap-sucking insects that can attract ants and cause damage to plants.
The ratio of the edible portion of a crop to the total biomass produced.
The ability of a plant to withstand adverse environmental conditions, such as extreme cold or heat.
The study of water in the natural environment, including its distribution, movement, and quality.
The amount of moisture in the air, which can affect plant growth and health.
Machinery used for the collection and processing of crops.
The act of gathering crops, also the crops themselves.
The practice of cultivating plants, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants.
The offspring of two different plant varieties or species, often bred for improved traits.
A component of soil made up of decaying organic matter.
The practice of growing plants in a nutrient-rich water solution, without soil.
Machinery designed for the specific task of harvesting crops.
A chemical substance used to kill unwanted plants or weeds.
The amount of moisture in the air, which can affect plant growth.
Grass or other plants that have been cut and dried for use as animal feed.
A unit of land measurement, equal to 10,000 square meters or 2.471 acres.
The time of year when crops are ready to be harvested.
A group of domesticated animals, such as cows or sheep, that are kept together for farming purposes.
The study of water in the environment, including its distribution, movement, and quality.
A condition in plants or animals caused by exposure to high temperatures for prolonged periods of time.
The ratio of harvested yield to total biomass produced by a crop.
A farming approach that emphasizes the interconnectedness of all parts of the ecosystem, including soil, water, plants, and animals.
A type of greenhouse structure used for growing crops in a protected environment.
A container used to hold or transport bulk materials, such as grain or fertilizer.
Metallic elements that can be toxic to plants, animals, and humans in high concentrations.
A term used to describe substances or materials that repel water, making them difficult to wet or penetrate. This property can be useful in a variety of applications, including coatings, textiles, and construction materials.
The artificial application of water to crops.
An approach to pest management that uses a combination of biological, cultural, and chemical control methods.
A chemical substance used to kill insects.
Growing two or more crops together on the same land in a particular pattern or sequence.
The mating of closely related organisms.
A device used for hatching eggs artificially.
A substance containing beneficial microorganisms that are used to improve soil fertility or crop growth.
The process of introducing beneficial microorganisms to the soil or crop to enhance growth and productivity, improve soil health, and suppress plant diseases.
A fertilizer that does not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds, and is typically derived from mineral sources.
A farming system that combines multiple agricultural activities, such as crop cultivation, livestock rearing, and fisheries.
A type of agriculture that emphasizes large-scale, mechanized production of crops and livestock.
The process by which water seeps into the soil.
A weather phenomenon in which warm air is trapped beneath a layer of cooler air, often causing damage to crops.
The ability of a plant to withstand or repel insect infestation or damage without the use of insecticides.
The material used to introduce microorganisms to a plant or soil, typically for the purpose of promoting growth or improving soil fertility.
A group of plants or animals that have been selectively bred to maintain a specific set of desirable genetic traits.
Agricultural production that relies on high levels of input, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and machinery, to achieve high yields.
The ability of a plant or animal to resist infection or disease, often through the production of antibodies or other immune system responses.
A tool used in microbiology to transfer small amounts of bacteria or other microorganisms from one location to another, typically for the purpose of culturing or analyzing them.
The process by which insects, such as bees, transfer pollen from one plant to another, facilitating fertilization.
Referring to a plant or animal that has been selectively bred for generations to maintain a particular set of genetic traits.
The method used to apply inoculants to soil or plants.
Soil that lacks organic matter and nutrients, and is typically found in arid regions.
A chemical compound that disrupts the growth and development of insects, often used as an alternative to traditional insecticides.
The process of exposing food to ionizing radiation in order to kill harmful bacteria and extend shelf life.
The percentage of applied inoculant that successfully colonizes the soil or plant.
The percentage of water applied through irrigation that is actually used by the crops.
The ability of insects to tolerate or survive exposure to insecticides.
Non-native plants or animals that have the potential to harm the environment, economy, or human health.
The process of cultivating soil between rows of crops to control weeds and improve soil structure.
The practice of growing different crops together in the same field to increase diversity and productivity.
A habitat designed to attract and sustain populations of beneficial insects, such as pollinators and predators.
The level of pest damage at which control measures should be initiated in an integrated pest management program.
Microorganisms that can infect and kill insects, often used as a biological control method.
The amount of inoculant applied per unit area of soil or plant.
A type of pesticide made from natural soap or fatty acids, used to control soft-bodied insects.
A holistic approach to weed control that combines various methods, such as cultural, mechanical, and chemical.
The passing of genetic traits from one generation to the next.
Charged particles, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, that are essential nutrients for plant growth.
A system that combines fish farming with other forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics or rice farming.
An approach to weed control that uses a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods.
A type of mesh material used to protect crops from insect damage.
A cultivation method used to control weeds within the rows of crops.
The concentration of microorganisms in an inoculum.
A system of crop production that combines multiple practices to optimize yields while minimizing inputs and environmental impacts.
A seeding method in which seeds are sown in the spaces between the rows of crops.
Farm operations carried out during the growing season, such as weeding, fertilizing, and pruning.
A tillage implement that uproots weeds and turns them upside down to dry out and die.
Nitrogen that is not part of organic compounds, and is often added to soil as fertilizer.
A material used to deliver beneficial microorganisms to soil or plants, such as peat moss or vermiculite.
The process of preparing a mixture of microorganisms for inoculation, often including growing and multiplying the microorganisms.
A system of crop production in which multiple crops are grown together in a particular arrangement or sequence to maximize productivity and sustainability. .
A type of insect that feeds on the sap of plants, causing damage and reduced yields.
A small, sweet fruit that grows on a tree of the same name.
A drought-resistant shrub or tree that is grown for its oil-rich seeds, which can be used for biodiesel production.
The stage in plant growth when the stem of a grass plant elongates and forms joints, usually in response to environmental conditions.
A type of plant fiber that is commonly used for making sacks, rope, and other products.
A brand of farm machinery, particularly tractors and other heavy equipment, known for their green and yellow color scheme.
A type of beetle that feeds on the leaves, flowers, and fruits of many different plant species, causing damage and reduced yields.
A type of sunflower that produces a tuber that can be eaten as a root vegetable or used to make alcohol.
A small, blue-black berry that grows on a type of evergreen tree, often used as a spice or flavoring.
A type of unrefined sugar made from sugarcane juice or palm sap.
A type of grass that produces hard, bead-like seeds that can be used for decoration or as a food source.
A tropical fruit tree that produces a small, purple-black fruit with a sweet and tangy flavor.
A large, tropical fruit that can weigh up to 80 pounds and is commonly used as a meat substitute due to its texture and flavor.
A root vegetable with a crisp texture and slightly sweet flavor, often used in salads and other dishes.
A type of meat that has been marinated in a spicy seasoning blend and then dried or smoked, often associated with Jamaican cuisine.
A finely ground version of jaggery sugar, commonly used in baking and cooking.
A ground version of jujube fruit, often used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a nutritional supplement.
A type of grass weed that is common in wheat and other cereal crops.
A type of short-grain rice that is commonly used in sushi and other Japanese dishes.
A type of soft, white cheese commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine.
A tool used in irrigation systems to regulate the flow of water.
A middleman who buys agricultural products from farmers and sells them to retailers or processors.
A type of wild rice that grows in marshy areas of Asia.
A type of grass-like plant that is often used for wetland restoration and erosion control.
A type of aquatic plant that grows in wetland areas and is often used for ornamental purposes.
An oil that is extracted from the seeds of the jatropha plant and can be used as a biofuel.
A type of tall, perennial grass that is often considered a weed due to its aggressive growth and ability to outcompete other plants.
A breed of dairy cow known for its high milk production and distinctive brown and white coloration.
A business arrangement in which two or more parties agree to pool resources and expertise for a specific project or venture.
A genus of flowering plants that is used to produce biodiesel.
A tall, invasive grass species that can reduce crop yields and compete with native plants.
A hormone that regulates insect development and metamorphosis.
A fragrant flower often used for perfumes, teas, and essential oils.
A species of palm tree that produces fruit with a gelatinous texture.
A fiber plant used for making burlap and other coarse fabrics.
A flowering tree with purple or blue flowers.
A brand of artisanal sea salt produced in Oregon.
A species of sunflower that produces edible tubers.
A pest insect that feeds on a wide range of plants.
An invasive weed species that can reduce crop yields and compete with native plants.
A species of plant in the smartweed family that is often used in landscaping.
A chronic bacterial infection that affects cattle, sheep, and other ruminants.
A type of irrigation system that uses high-pressure water to distribute water to crops.
A poisonous plant species that can be toxic to humans and livestock.
A type of evergreen tree or shrub with needle-like leaves and berries.
A natural toxin produced by walnut trees and some other plants that can inhibit the growth of other plants in their vicinity.
The state of being young and not yet fully mature, often used to describe plants in their early growth stages.
The process of obtaining liquid from plant materials such as fruits and vegetables, often for use in making juice or other products.
A sweet spread made from cooked fruit and sugar, often used as a topping for bread and pastries.
A type of bag made from the fibers of the jute plant, often used for carrying agricultural products or other goods.
A method of weaving intricate designs into fabric using a special loom that controls the movement of individual threads.
A plant lectin with potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.
A large brown algae found in cool waters that can be used as a fertilizer.
A depression in the land surface formed by glaciers, used for water collection in agriculture.
A breed of domesticated duck primarily used for egg production.
A warm-season grass commonly used in lawns and pastures in Africa and Australia.
A crop planted solely for the purpose of being destroyed in order to control pests or diseases.
A group of thistle-like plants with purple or pink flowers that can be invasive and harmful to livestock.
A portable device used to spray pesticides or herbicides on crops.
The removal of fruit or flowers from a tree or plant in order to increase the size or quality of remaining fruit.
A type of collective farm system used in the former Soviet Union and other socialist countries.
A climbing vine originally from East Asia that is invasive in many parts of the world.
A small citrus fruit with a sweet edible rind and sour pulp.
A type of clover commonly used in forage production and soil improvement.
A breed of chicken developed in India for meat and egg production.
A plant species used in Ayurvedic medicine for its medicinal properties.
A type of chickpea with large, beige-colored seeds commonly used in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine.
A type of lime commonly used in Southeast Asian cuisine for its distinct flavor.
A leafy green vegetable high in vitamins and antioxidants.
A group of evergreen shrubs or small trees with showy flowers, commonly used in landscaping.
A type of ancient wheat with large kernels and a high protein content.
Crops that are sown during the monsoon season and harvested in the winter season.
An Agricultural Science Center that provides training and extension services to farmers.
An agricultural festival organized to promote awareness and adoption of new agricultural practices.
A farmer who cultivates crops or rears livestock for a living.
A piece of land used for agricultural purposes.
A helpline for farmers that provides them with information and advice related to agriculture.
A credit card designed for farmers that allows them to access credit for agricultural purposes.
Farmer’s Day is celebrated on 23rd December every year to recognize the role of farmers in the country’s economy.
A government saving scheme that helps farmers invest their money and earn interest.
The period of the year during which Kharif crops are grown, typically between June to October.
A marketplace where farmers can sell their produce directly to consumers, eliminating middlemen.
A government scheme that provides low-interest credit to farmers for agricultural purposes.
A special train service for transporting agricultural produce from one part of the country to another.
Crops that are sown during the monsoon season and harvested in the winter season.
A government scheme that provides financial assistance to farmers in India.
An organization that works for the welfare of farmers in India.
A one-stop-shop for farmers where they can get information and assistance related to various agricultural activities.
A training program organized by the government for farmers to help them acquire knowledge and skills related to modern farming techniques.
A government scheme that aims to provide solar-powered irrigation pumps to farmers.
A government scheme that aims to promote the use of solar energy in the agriculture sector.
A national organization of farmers that works for their rights and welfare in India.
A government scheme that provides credit facilities to farmers to meet their short-term credit requirements.
A mobile cold storage facility that allows farmers to transport perishable goods over long distances.
A government scheme that aims to promote sustainable agriculture and increase the income of farmers.
A council that regulates the functioning of farmer’s markets in India.
An agricultural fair that aims to promote new technologies and practices among farmers.
A television channel dedicated to agriculture and rural development in India.
A government scheme that aims to provide solar-powered pumps to farmers for irrigation.
A large gathering of farmers to discuss and raise issues related to agriculture and farming.
A government scheme that aims to provide financial assistance to farmers for setting up solar power plants.
A government scheme that provides financial assistance to small and marginal farmers in India.
A government scheme that aims to promote the use of solar power in the agriculture sector.
A government scheme that aims to provide financial assistance and training to farmers to adopt modern farming techniques.
A government scheme that aims to promote the use of solar power in the agriculture sector.
A government scheme that provides farmers with access to credit at low-interest rates.
A government-run center that provides a range of services to farmers, including soil testing, seed distribution, and training.
A government initiative that aims to double farmers’ income by 2022.
A mobile application that provides farmers with information on weather, market prices, and government schemes.
A chain of markets that provides farmers with a platform to sell their produce directly to consumers.
A platform that brings together farmers, scientists, and policymakers to discuss issues related to agriculture and farming.
A loan designed specifically for farmers to meet their agricultural needs.
The headquarters of the All India Kisan Sabha.
A credit card specifically designed for farmers that provides access to credit at low-interest rates.
A special train service launched by the government to transport perishable goods like fruits, vegetables, and dairy products from one state to another.
A mobile application launched by the government that provides farmers with information on various aspects of agriculture and farming.
A gathering of farmers in a village to discuss and exchange knowledge about agriculture and farming practices.
A demonstration of new agricultural technologies and practices to farmers in order to promote their adoption.
A building designed for the accommodation and welfare of farmers, especially those visiting from other parts of the country.
A government initiative that aims to provide a direct market link to farmers, allowing them to sell their produce directly to consumers.
A movement launched by farmers to demand fair prices for their produce and to protest against policies that hurt their interests.
A government scheme that provides insurance coverage to farmers against crop failure, natural disasters, and other risks.
A government-run center that provides farmers with access to various services, including market information, soil testing, and training.
A government scheme that aims to provide support and assistance to farmers in distress, including counseling and financial aid.
An online portal launched by the government that allows farmers to register their grievances and seek redressal.
A center set up by the government to provide farmers with information on various government schemes, market prices, and other agricultural-related services.
An educational institution that offers courses and training programs in agriculture and related fields.
A marketplace where farmers can sell their produce directly to consumers.
A meeting of farmers in a village or region to discuss and resolve issues related to agriculture and farming practices.
A government-run center that provides farmers with access to various services, including market information, soil testing, and training.
A program launched by the government to connect & help farmers with the latest agricultural technologies and practices.
A plant in the family Fabaceae, with seeds that grow in pods, often used as a cover crop or for livestock feed.
The period of milk production in a dairy animal, such as a cow or goat.
Domesticated animals raised for meat, milk, eggs, wool, or other products.
A local variety of a crop or animal breed that has adapted to the local environment over time.
The management and modification of natural landscapes for human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, or urban development.
Roots that grow horizontally from the main root of a plant, often used to absorb nutrients and water from a wider area of soil.
A stretch of grassy ground, often used for recreational or ornamental purposes.
The flattened, usually green part of a plant that is attached to a stem or branch, often used for photosynthesis.
A breed of chicken that is popular for egg production, known for their small size and white eggs.
A raised embankment that is built along a river or other body of water to prevent flooding, often used in agriculture to protect crops.
A soil amendment used to increase the pH of acidic soils, often in the form of calcium carbonate.
The process of applying lime to soil to raise the pH, often used to improve soil fertility.
The material used as bedding in animal housing, often made of straw, wood shavings, or other materials.
A type of soil that is a mixture of sand, silt, and clay, often considered ideal for agriculture.
A machine used for loading materials, such as hay or manure, onto a truck or trailer.
A division or segment of a leaf or other plant part, often used to describe the shape of a leaf.
The movement of animals from one place to another, often used to describe the movement of livestock on a farm.
The back part of an animal, often used as a cut of meat.
A plant that requires a certain amount of daylight to flower, often used in agriculture to determine planting and harvesting schedules.
A carotenoid pigment found in many fruits and vegetables, often used as a feed supplement for poultry to improve egg yolk color.
An essential amino acid that is often added to animal feed to improve protein quality.
An enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar found in milk, often used in dairy processing to make lactose-free products.
The process of improving land for agricultural purposes, often by clearing land, draining wet areas, or building irrigation systems.
The system of land ownership and use, often used to describe the legal or customary rights of farmers to use and manage land.
The natural or human-made features of a geographic area, often used in agriculture to describe the visual and aesthetic qualities of a farm or rural area.
The immature form of an insect, often used in agriculture to describe the stage of development of pests that can damage crops.
A type of irrigation system in which sprinkler heads move along a field on a track, delivering water to crops in a uniform pattern.
The process of water carrying nutrients or other substances out of soil, often leading to nutrient depletion or pollution of nearby waterways.
Of or relating to plants in the family Fabaceae, often used to describe crops or cover crops that are legumes.
A type of virus that can infect livestock, often causing respiratory or reproductive problems.
A bacterial disease that can infect livestock and humans, often transmitted through contaminated water or soil.
The amount of a substance that is lethal to a given organism, often used in agriculture to determine safe levels of pesticide use.
Small, parasitic insects that can infest livestock, often causing skin irritation or other health problems.
A small, membranous structure on the leaf of a grass plant, often used in grass identification.
A type of pesticide or fungicide made from sulfur and lime, often used to control pests and diseases in orchards or vineyards.
The amount of lime applied to soil, often measured in pounds per acre or kilograms per hectare.
The fluffy fiber that surrounds cotton seeds, often used to make textiles.
A type of organic molecule that is important for energy storage and cell membrane structure, often found in animal feed or used as a feed supplement.
The process of providing water to livestock, often through ponds, streams, or troughs.
A type of wind-blown sediment that is rich in nutrients, often found in areas with fertile soils.
A type of vehicle used for pulling trains, often used in agriculture to transport crops or livestock.
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates milk production in lactating animals, often used in reproductive management of livestock.
A device used to measure the movement of water and nutrients through soil, often used in agricultural research.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a barrier, typically found along coastlines and connected to the open ocean through narrow channels. They can be freshwater or saltwater and support a variety of aquatic life.
A cereal crop that is commonly used for human and animal consumption, and has a wide range of industrial applications.
Animal waste that is used as a fertilizer to improve soil quality and increase crop productivity.
The process of extracting milk from lactating animals, typically cows, for human consumption or industrial purposes.
A layer of organic or inorganic material, such as straw, leaves, or plastic, that is spread over the soil surface to retain moisture, regulate soil temperature, and suppress weed growth.
The amount of water present in the soil or the air, which is a crucial factor in plant growth and development.
The production of high-value crops, such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers, for sale in local markets or to restaurants, supermarkets, and other food outlets.
The use of machines and equipment to perform agricultural tasks.
Rich, dark soil that is formed from decomposed organic matter.
A plant that is cultivated for its seeds, which are used to make mustard condiment.
The climate of a small area, such as a garden or a field.
A plant that is grown for its nectar and is a major source of food for monarch butterflies.
A tiny arachnid that can cause damage to crops and plants.
The processing of meat, such as slaughtering, cutting, and packaging.
The study of fungi and their role in agriculture.
The point at which a crop or plant is fully grown and ready to be harvested.
A type of plow that is used to turn over the soil and bury weeds and crop residues.
The pattern of fat that is found in meat, which affects its flavor and tenderness.
The practice of growing a single crop on a large scale.
Temporary workers who move from one agricultural job to another.
A condition in which a plant does not receive enough water to meet its needs.
The process of producing milk from lactating animals.
A pattern of uneven color on a plant, which can indicate disease or nutrient deficiency.
A grassy field that is used for grazing livestock or harvesting hay.
A substance that is used to control mites.
A tree that is grown for its fruit, which is used to make jams, jellies, and wine.
A mutually beneficial relationship between a fungus and plant roots, in which the fungus helps the plant absorb nutrients and water from the soil, and the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates.
Essential nutrients required in large amounts by plants for growth and development, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
Essential nutrients required in small amounts by plants for growth and development, including iron, zinc, and manganese.
A farming system in which only one crop is grown on a large scale, often leading to soil depletion, pest problems, and loss of biodiversity.
The larger soil-dwelling organisms, such as earthworms, that play important roles in soil structure and nutrient cycling.
A mineral essential for plant growth and development, often used in fertilizer applications.
A device used to measure the strength and direction of magnetic fields, often used in agricultural research to study soil properties.
The stage of growth and development when a crop is ready for harvest or when seeds are ready for processing or storage.
A small, soft-bodied insect that feeds on plant sap and can damage crops, often controlled through natural predators or insecticides.
A type of fruiting plant that includes several species, such as watermelon, cantaloupe, and honeydew, commonly grown for their sweet and juicy flesh.
Relating to microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, that can be beneficial or harmful to plant growth and health.
A group of cereal crops with small, nutritious grains, commonly grown in arid or semi-arid regions for human or animal consumption.
A group of flowering plants with pungent seeds or leaves, commonly used as a spice or vegetable and grown as a cover crop or green manure in agriculture.
A toxic compound produced by certain types of fungi that can contaminate crops and pose health risks to humans or animals.
A small, burrowing mammal that can damage crops or soil structure, often controlled through traps or repellents.
The amount of water present in a crop or soil sample, often measured as a percentage of the sample’s weight.
A type of small-scale farming that produces high-value crops, such as fruits and vegetables, for local markets or restaurants.
The flesh of animals that is used for human consumption, typically obtained from cattle, pigs, or poultry.
The process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling resources (people, finances, materials) to achieve organizational goals and objectives effectively and efficiently.
An animal, typically a cow, goat, or sheep, that is raised for the production of milk, which can be used for human consumption or to make dairy products such as cheese and yogurt.
A group of flowering plants with bright yellow or orange blooms, commonly grown as ornamental plants or companion plants in vegetable gardens for their pest-repelling properties.
The process by which organic matter in the soil is decomposed by soil microorganisms into inorganic forms of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, that are available for plant uptake.
A thin plastic film used as a mulch to regulate soil temperature, conserve moisture, and control weed growth.
A soil fumigant used to control soil-borne pests and diseases, often applied before planting or after harvest.
A weed control method that involves using mechanical devices, such as hoes or cultivators, to physically remove weeds from the soil.
A group of large or giant animals, typically weighing over 44 kilograms (97 pounds), that can have significant impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity.
The chemical processes by which organisms convert nutrients into energy, build and maintain tissues, and eliminate waste products.
A change in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome that can alter an organism’s traits or characteristics, either beneficial or detrimental.
Worm-like microscopic organisms that can damage plant roots.
A chemical compound that is a source of nitrogen for plants.
A gas essential for plant growth and found in the atmosphere.
A swelling on the roots of leguminous plants that contains nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Resources that are finite and cannot be replaced once used up.
A type of herbicide that kills all plants it comes into contact with.
A place where young plants are grown for sale or transplantation.
A substance that is essential for plant growth and development.
The process by which nutrients are cycled through the environment, from soil to plants to animals and back to the soil.
A condition in which a plant does not receive enough of a particular nutrient.
The practice of optimizing nutrient use in agriculture to improve crop yield and minimize environmental impact.
The process by which plants absorb nutrients from the soil.
A term used to describe soil or fertilizer that contains a high concentration of essential nutrients.
The role a plant or animal plays in its environment.
A method of farming that involves planting crops without disturbing the soil.
A plant that is harmful to the environment or human health.
A type of grass that is difficult to control and can become invasive.
A federal program that regulates the production, processing, and labeling of organic products.
A term used to describe crops or products that have not been genetically modified.
A type of fertilizer made from organic materials such as compost or manure.
A method of pest control that uses natural predators, parasites, or repellents to control pests.
A resource that occurs naturally in the environment, such as water, soil, or minerals.
The process by which nitrogen is cycled through the environment, from the atmosphere to the soil to living organisms and back to the atmosphere.
The process by which certain bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use.
A type of fertilizer that contains nitrogen, used to promote plant growth.
The balance between the nutrients that are taken up by plants and the nutrients that are removed from the soil.
The movement of nutrients through different parts of an ecosystem, including the soil, plants, and animals.
A plan that outlines how nutrients will be managed on a farm to optimize crop growth and minimize environmental impact.
A solution containing all of the essential nutrients required for plant growth, used in hydroponic systems.
A chemical compound containing nitrogen, often used as a fertilizer.
An acronym for the three essential macronutrients required for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
A market that caters to a specific, specialized segment of the population.
The process by which nitrates are washed out of the soil by rainfall or irrigation water.
A species that has been introduced to an ecosystem where it is not native.
The process by which organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
A pesticide that is used to control nematodes.
A compound that contains nitrogen and oxygen, often produced by combustion processes.
The process by which plants incorporate nitrogen into their tissues.
The process by which organic nitrogen is converted into inorganic nitrogen that can be taken up by plants.
A condition in which the soil contains more nitrogen than is required by plants, leading to environmental problems. .
A measure of the nutrient content of a food or soil relative to its calorie content.
A hydroponic method of growing plants in which the roots are suspended in a nutrient solution.
A type of farming that specializes in producing a particular crop or product for a specific market.
The ability of soil to retain nutrients and prevent them from leaching out.
The balance between the amount of nitrogen taken up by plants and the amount lost through leaching or other processes.
A term used to describe soil or fertilizer that contains a low concentration of essential nutrients.
Bacteria that are capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use.
An enzyme produced by nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is responsible for converting atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form.
A resource that cannot be replaced or regenerated in a reasonable amount of time.
The management of natural resources, such as water, soil, and wildlife, to ensure their sustainability and optimal use.
A method of farming in which crops are planted without tilling the soil, reducing erosion and improving soil health.
A condition in which plants or animals do not receive enough essential nutrients, leading to stunted growth and other problems.
The process by which plants absorb nitrogen from the soil.
Pollution that comes from multiple, diffuse sources, such as agricultural runoff, rather than from a single, identifiable point.
The rate at which nutrients move through an ecosystem, including the soil, plants, and animals.
The rate at which fertilizer or other nutrients are applied to crops or soil.
A type of fertilizer made from natural sources, such as animal manure or compost.
The process by which nitrogen moves through the environment, including fixation, mineralization, assimilation, and denitrification.
A cereal plant grown for its edible seeds.
A pigment made from clay and used as a colorant for soil.
A tree cultivated in tropical regions for its fruit, which is used to make palm oil.
A plant grown for its edible seed pods.
A bulbous plant used as a food and seasoning.
Relating to or derived from living matter.
A method of agriculture that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
A cultivated area of trees, typically fruit-bearing trees.
Plants grown for their aesthetic value.
A type of willow tree used for weaving baskets and furniture.
A large flightless bird raised for meat, feathers, and leather.
The female reproductive organ in flowering plants that contains the ovules.
The excessive grazing of livestock on an area of land.
The remains of dead organisms that are used as a soil amendment.
A domesticated bovine used for plowing and hauling.
Plural of “ox”.
A hormone released during childbirth and nursing that promotes bonding.
A person who cultivates and manages an orchard.
A method of irrigation in which water is sprayed onto crops from above.
Business expenses not directly related to the production of goods or services.
Plants that are pollinated by natural means, such as wind or insects.
A fertilizer derived from natural sources, such as compost or manure.
Food produced without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, and other harmful chemicals. Organic farming methods also prioritize environmental sustainability and animal welfare.
The internal organs of an animal, such as liver, heart, and kidneys, that are used as food. Offal is often considered a delicacy in certain cuisines.
The process of verifying that a product meets organic standards, such as those set by the USDA’s National Organic Program. Products that meet these standards can be labeled and sold as organic.
An animal that eats both plants and animals. Humans are considered omnivores because they eat a diet that includes both meat and vegetables.
The processing of agricultural products on the farm where they are produced, as opposed to off-farm processing in a separate facility. This allows for greater control over the quality and freshness of the products.
The storage of agricultural products on the farm where they are produced, as opposed to off-farm storage in a separate facility. This can help reduce transportation costs and increase efficiency.
The management of vegetation and ground cover in an orchard.
The use of natural methods to control pests in agriculture.
A fungus-like microorganism that can cause plant diseases.
A thick-walled sexual spore of certain fungi and oomycetes.
Seed produced by open-pollinated plants.
Vegetation or other ground cover planted in an orchard to prevent erosion and provide habitat for beneficial insects.
The use of natural methods to control weeds in agriculture.
A class of pesticides that affect the nervous system of insects.
Electrical lines suspended above the ground.
The process of surviving the winter by plants or animals.
A U-shaped body of water formed when a river changes course.
The process of combining with oxygen, often resulting in a change in color or texture.
A gas necessary for respiration in plants and animals.
A molecule composed of three oxygen atoms that helps protect the earth from UV radiation.
The breakdown of organic matter into simpler compounds by microorganisms.
The temperature at which a plant or animal grows best.
The pH at which a plant or microorganism grows best.
The pruning and training of fruit trees to optimize fruit production and quality.
The application of water to an orchard to maintain plant health and fruit quality.
A layer of organic material applied to the soil surface to suppress weeds, retain moisture, and improve soil health.
A type of crane that is suspended from a beam and can move along a track, typically used for heavy lifting in industrial settings.
The process of mating individuals from different populations or varieties, which can increase genetic diversity and improve the health and adaptability of a population.
The process of transplanting seedlings or saplings from a nursery to a field or forest, typically to establish new growth or replace damaged or dead plants.
The presence of too many animals in a given area, which can lead to reduced health, productivity, and welfare of the animals, as well as negative impacts on the environment and surrounding communities.
The environmental or social impacts of agricultural practices beyond the boundaries of the farm.
Livestock raised without the use of synthetic hormones or antibiotics.
The percentage of organic matter in soil or compost.
Seed produced by open-pollinated plants that are grown using organic methods.
The study of birds, including their behavior and ecology.
The female reproductive structure of a flowering plant that develops into a seed.
A man-made pond used to treat wastewater by promoting the growth of microorganisms that break down organic matter.
A type of edible mushroom that is commonly cultivated and used in cuisine.
A plant that lives for more than two years.
A substance used to kill pests, such as insects or weeds.
The process by which plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.
The process of selecting and crossing plants to develop new and improved varieties.
A condition that affects the growth or health of a plant.
A chemical that alters the growth and development of plants.
The study of how plants obtain and use nutrients.
The number of plants per unit area.
The time of year when crops are typically planted.
A farming tool used to turn over and loosen soil.
Pollution that comes from a single, identifiable source, such as a factory or sewage treatment plant.
The transfer of pollen from the male to the female reproductive organs of a plant.
The use of technology to optimize crop yields and reduce waste.
The act of one organism killing and consuming another.
The minimum amount of time that must elapse between the application of a pesticide and the harvest of the crop.
A tool used to measure the water status of plants.
A complex organic molecule essential for the growth and repair of cells.
A type of legume grown for its seeds, such as lentils, chickpeas, and peas.
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance, such as soil or water.
A chemical element essential for plant growth and development.
A chemical signal released by an organism to communicate with others of the same species.
The number of plants per unit area.
An area of prepared soil where seeds or transplants are planted.
A chemical that regulates plant growth and development.
The distance between plants in a row or between rows.
The use of plastic materials in agriculture, such as mulch film and drip irrigation tubing.
The loss of crops after harvest, due to spoilage or damage.
A chemical element essential for plant growth and development.
The use of technology to precisely plant seeds at optimal depths and spacing.
The practice of growing a single crop species in a given area.
A type of herbicide applied to the soil before weed seeds germinate.
The practice of planting crops in anticipation of adverse weather conditions.
The amount of output produced per unit of input, such as land, labor, or capital.
The process of reproducing plants, either sexually or asexually.
The amount of protein in a given quantity of a food or feed product.
The process of removing unwanted or excess plant parts, such as branches or buds.
The soft, fleshy part of a fruit or vegetable.
An animal or plant that has a known ancestry and breed characteristics.
A natural insecticide derived from the chrysanthemum flower.
The depth at which seeds are planted in the soil.
A large area of land where crops, such as trees or coffee, are grown for commercial purposes.
The practice of growing multiple crop species in a given area.
A type of herbicide applied to weeds after they have emerged from the soil.
A soil mixture used for growing plants in containers.
The use of technology to deliver precise amounts of water to crops.
An individual or organization that grows or raises agricultural products for sale.
The information provided on a pesticide or fertilizer container, including usage instructions and safety precautions.
The application of scientific and technical knowledge to the practice of agriculture.
A plant part used for propagation, such as a seed or cutting.
A feed product added to animal diets to increase protein intake.
A small, round pellet of fertilizer.
A type of irrigation where water is applied in short pulses to the soil.
A planting of a single crop species in a given area.
A synthetic insecticide that mimics the natural insecticide pyrethrin.
A substance that is used to control or manipulate the growth and development of plants.
The practice of growing plants from small pieces of plant tissue in a laboratory setting.
The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ to the female reproductive organ of a plant.
An insect that feeds on other insects, helping to control pest populations and maintain ecological balance.
A measure of the average change in prices received by producers for their agricultural products.
The process of ensuring that agricultural products meet certain quality standards.
A square or rectangular frame used in ecological research to sample vegetation or other features.
A process used to rapidly cool hot steel to make it stronger and more durable.
A grain-like crop that is grown for its edible seeds, native to South America seeds that are rich in protein and other nutrients.
The isolation of plants or animals to prevent the spread of pests or diseases.
The practice of estimating and managing the cost of agricultural projects.
A type of lime used to modify soil pH and provide calcium and magnesium to crops.
A mathematical term used to express the ratio between two values.
A fruit tree species that is commonly grown for its fruit and ornamental value.
A framework for sustainable agriculture that considers economic, social, environmental, and cultural factors.
A statistical method used to identify regions of the genome that are associated with specific traits or characteristics in plants and animals.
A measurable characteristic of an agricultural product that contributes to its overall quality.
A type of soil that becomes unstable when disturbed, posing a hazard to farm animals and machinery.
A process by which bacteria communicate and coordinate their behavior based on the density of their population.
A group of cells at the root tip of plants that is responsible for maintaining the stem cells that give rise to new roots.
The arrangement of multiple protein molecules into a larger, functional unit.
Another term for the element mercury, which can be toxic to plants and animals in high concentrations.
A type of plant virus that can infect and damage quinoa plants, reducing yield and quality.
A type of organic compound that can be used as a pesticide to control certain insects and fungi.
A limit on the amount of agricultural products that can be imported or exported, often used to protect domestic producers from foreign competition.
A term used to describe a state of inactivity or dormancy in cells, tissues, or organisms.
A bacterial disease that can affect animals and humans, often transmitted by infected livestock.
The depth of steel that is hardened during the quenching process.
A type of small game bird that is commonly hunted for sport or consumed as food.
A method of data analysis that involves the use of numerical data and statistical techniques to draw conclusions about a population or sample.
A type of maize that is bred to have a higher protein content than traditional maize varieties.
A process used to rapidly freeze agricultural products to preserve their quality and nutritional value.
A type of fungal disease that can affect quince trees and other members of the Rosaceae family.
The minimum number of individuals required to make a decision or take an action.
A type of flavonoid that is found in many fruits, vegetables, and grains and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
A tree native to South America that produces a natural foaming agent that is used in some agricultural products, such as pesticides and livestock vaccines.
A type of organophosphate pesticide that is used to control a variety of insect pests in agricultural crops.
A type of alkaloid compound that is found in certain plants, including legumes, and can have toxic or pharmacological effects.
A type of disinfectant that is commonly used in animal husbandry to control bacterial and fungal infections.
A period of climate change that occurred during the Quaternary period, which began about 2.6 million years ago and continues to the present day.
A period of inactivity or rest in the growth and development of plants or other organisms.
A process used to ensure that agricultural products meet certain standards of quality, safety, and consistency.
A protein or other molecule that regulates quiescence or dormancy in cells.
The complete set of genetic information encoded in the DNA of quinoa plants.
The three-dimensional arrangement of multiple protein subunits or other macromolecules in a quaternary protein structure.
A communication system used by some bacteria to coordinate group behaviors based on population density.
A type of ammonia compound that is often used as a cleaning agent in animal husbandry and other agricultural settings.
A type of postharvest physiological disorder in fruits and vegetables that can result in rapid wilting and loss of quality.
A tool used in ecological studies to measure the distribution and abundance of plant and animal populations.
An experimental design that lacks some of the features of a true experiment, such as randomization or a control group.
A type of salt that contains a quaternary ammonium cation and is used in a variety of agricultural products, including herbicides and disinfectants.
A type of soil or sediment that becomes fluidized when disturbed and can trap animals or machinery.
A plant-based milk alternative made from quinoa seeds and water.
A stiff, hollow structure found in the feathers of birds and used for flight and thermoregulation.
Land that is used primarily for grazing livestock, such as cattle or sheep.
A management technique in which livestock are moved between different grazing areas to prevent overgrazing and improve soil health.
Relating to or situated near a river or other watercourse.
The area of soil surrounding plant roots that is influenced by the presence of root exudates and microbial activity.
A secondary crop that grows from the remaining stalks of a previously harvested crop, such as sugarcane or pineapple.
A crop that is planted in a field after a different crop has been harvested in the previous growing season, in order to improve soil health and prevent pest buildup.
A crop that is planted in rows, such as corn or soybeans, and typically requires mechanical cultivation or harvesting.
Agriculture that relies solely on rainfall for irrigation, without the use of artificial irrigation methods.
A modified stem structure that grows underground and produces roots and shoots at nodes, such as in ginger or bamboo plants.
The process of developing crop varieties that are resistant to specific diseases, pests, or environmental stressors.
The practice of managing crop residues, such as stalks or leaves, to improve soil health and prevent soil erosion.
Energy that is generated from renewable sources, such as wind, solar, or biomass, that can be replenished over time.
The process of improving economic, social, and environmental conditions in rural areas through a variety of interventions, such as infrastructure development or capacity building.
The process of restoring degraded land, such as abandoned mine sites or eroded farmland, to a productive or natural state.
The depth at which plant roots are able to extract water and nutrients from the soil.
The collection and analysis of data from a distance, often using satellites or aircraft, to monitor agricultural and environmental conditions.
A statistical method used to analyze the relationship between one or more independent variables and a dependent variable.
The process of managing rangelands for sustainable livestock grazing and ecological health.
A type of rotary tillage machine used to prepare soil for planting or to control weeds.
The use of sensors or other technology to monitor agricultural or environmental conditions from a distance.
A disease of sugarcane that is caused by a bacterium and can result in reduced yield and quality.
The process of cutting and gathering a mature crop, such as wheat or barley.
Treated wastewater that is suitable for non-potable uses, such as irrigation or industrial processes.
A substance that is applied to plant cuttings to stimulate root growth and improve rooting success.
A type of soil bacteria that forms a symbiotic relationship with legumes, fixing atmospheric nitrogen and making it available to the plant.
The process of extending electrical power to rural areas, often through the use of renewable energy sources.
The distance between rows of crops in a field, which can affect crop yield and the amount of light and nutrients available to each plant.
An instrument used to measure the amount of precipitation in a specific area.
Water that flows over the surface of the land rather than infiltrating into the soil, often leading to soil erosion and nutrient loss.
An agricultural system that focuses on improving soil health and biodiversity, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and enhancing ecosystem services.
The study of social structures, relationships, and issues in rural communities.
An instrument used to measure the sugar content of crops, such as grapes or honey.
A substance used to accelerate the ripening of fruits or vegetables, such as ethylene gas.
A plan that outlines the sequence and timing of crops planted in a field to improve soil health and prevent pest buildup.
The process of designing and managing rural landscapes and communities to achieve economic, social, and environmental goals.
The process of restoring degraded rangeland ecosystems to improve soil health, biodiversity, and livestock grazing capacity.
A substance used to control rodent populations, such as mice or rats.
The practice of collecting and storing rainwater for later use, often for irrigation or domestic purposes.
Refers to materials or crops that are resistant to rot or decay, often due to natural or synthetic preservatives.
A resource that can be replenished over time, such as wood or wind power.
A crop that regrows from the base of a previously harvested plant, such as sugarcane or sorghum.
A viral disease that affects sugarcane crops, causing stunted growth and reduced yield.
The practice of managing crop residues, such as leaves or stalks, to improve soil health and reduce erosion.
Agriculture that relies solely on rainfall for water, without the use of irrigation systems.
The process of restoring or improving the quality of soil, fertilizer, or other agricultural inputs.
A cropping system where a crop is grown from the regrowth of the previous crop’s base, often used in sugarcane or rice production.
The stage of plant growth where the plant produces flowers, fruit, or seeds, and is focused on reproduction rather than vegetative growth.
A dry area on the leeward side of a mountain range that receives less precipitation due to the mountain blocking moist air.
Organic compounds released by plant roots into the soil that can affect soil chemistry, nutrient availability, and microbial activity.
The process of selectively cutting or removing plant roots to promote plant growth or manage root growth in confined spaces.
Rice that is grown without the use of irrigation systems, relying solely on rainfall.
A fungal disease that affects plant roots, causing decay and reduced plant growth.
The practices used to manage ratoon crops, including fertilizer application, pest control, and crop rotation.
A modified stem that grows horizontally underground and can give rise to new shoots and roots.
A protective fabric or plastic cover used to protect crops from pests, frost, or extreme weather conditions.
A mammal, such as a cow or sheep, with a four-chambered stomach that is able to digest cellulose-rich plant material.
A plant variety that is resistant to a specific pest or disease, often developed through selective breeding or genetic engineering.
A type of soil bacteria that forms a symbiotic relationship with legumes, fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by the plant.
A parasitic roundworm that infects plant roots, causing the formation of swollen root galls and reduced plant growth.
The area of land adjacent to a river or other body of water that is influenced by the water’s presence.
A type of conservation tillage where crops are planted on ridges of soil, leaving furrows between the rows to improve water infiltration and reduce erosion.
The lower portion of a grafted plant, often chosen for its desirable root characteristics, onto which a scion (the desired variety) is grafted.
The process of restoring degraded land to a more productive state, often through the use of soil amendments, drainage systems, and erosion control measures.
Water that flows over the surface of the ground or other surface, often carrying sediment, nutrients, and pollutants.
An instrument used to measure the sugar content (Brix) of plant sap or juice, often used to determine fruit ripeness or to monitor plant health.
A fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants, causing orange, red, or brown pustules on leaves or stems.
A condition where crops planted in soil previously used for the same crop or a closely related crop exhibit reduced growth and yield.
A natural or synthetic substance applied to plant cuttings to stimulate root growth and improve propagation success.
The soil surrounding a plant’s roots, where complex interactions occur between the plant, soil, and microorganisms.
A machine used for tillage and seedbed preparation, equipped with rotating blades or tines that break up soil and incorporate organic matter.
The prepared soil surface in which seeds are sown or planted.
The upper layer of earth in which plants grow, consisting of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms.
The process of planting seeds in soil or a growing medium.
A device used to apply liquid pesticides, fertilizers, or other agricultural chemicals to crops.
A machine used to distribute fertilizers, lime, or other materials over a wide area.
Fine soil particles, smaller than sand but larger than clay, that can accumulate in waterways and affect water quality.
Fermented forage crops, often made from grass or corn, used as animal feed.
A conservation tillage practice where only narrow strips of soil are disturbed, leaving the rest of the soil undisturbed to reduce erosion and improve soil health.
Any material added to soil to improve its physical or chemical properties, such as organic matter, lime, or gypsum.
The compression of soil particles, reducing pore space and limiting water infiltration and root growth.
The loss of soil due to water or wind movement, often caused by inadequate vegetation cover or poor soil management practices.
The ability of soil to support plant growth, determined by factors such as nutrient availability, soil structure, and microbial activity.
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soil, which affects nutrient availability and plant growth.
The arrangement of soil particles into aggregates, affecting water movement, aeration, and root growth.
The process of analyzing soil samples to determine nutrient levels, pH, and other properties important for plant growth.
The layer of soil beneath the topsoil, often less fertile and harder to cultivate.
A method of watering crops by applying water to the soil surface, often through furrows or flood irrigation.
A machine used to sow seeds at a precise depth and spacing, often used for planting crops such as wheat or corn.
A device used to scare birds away from crops, often in the form of a human or animal figure.
A row of cut vegetation, often created by a mower or harvester.
Dried stems and leaves of cereal crops, often used for animal bedding or as a mulch.
The remaining plant material left in the field after harvest, often tilled into the soil as a form of organic matter.
The overall condition of soil, including its physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as its ability to support plant growth and other ecosystem functions.
A shoot that emerges from the base of a plant, often unwanted and removed to promote growth in other parts of the plant.
A device used to distribute water over a wide area, often used for irrigating crops.
A shoot or twig from one plant that is grafted onto the rootstock of another plant to create a new plant with desirable traits.
The accumulation of silt or other sediment in waterways, often caused by soil erosion or land use changes.
A machine used to compact hay or other forage crops into a tight swath for easier handling and storage.
A tool used for digging or turning soil, often with a flat blade and long handle.
A form of soil tillage that follows primary tillage, often used for refining the seedbed or controlling weeds.
The application of chemicals, such as fungicides or insecticides, to seeds before planting to protect against pests or disease.
A container used for storing grain, seed, or other agricultural products.
A collection of seeds from various plant species, often used for conservation or research purposes.
Any material added to soil to improve its physical or chemical properties, such as organic matter, lime, or gypsum.
The management of soil to prevent erosion, maintain fertility, and promote sustainable use.
The living and dead plant and animal material in soil, providing nutrients and improving soil structure.
The process of eliminating all living organisms in soil using heat, chemicals, or other methods, often used to control pests or diseases.
The arrangement of soil particles into aggregates, affecting water movement, aeration, and root growth.
A classification system based on the physical and chemical properties of soil, often used for soil management and agricultural planning.
The water present in soil, affecting plant growth and nutrient availability.
A young shoot or plant that emerges from a seed or other dormant structure.
A dense mass of grass or other vegetation, often used for grazing or hay production.
Agricultural practices that are environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially responsible, promoting long-term resource use and ecological health.
The process by which soil is moved from one place to another by wind, water, or other factors, often leading to loss of fertility and land degradation.
A young plant that has recently emerged from a seed or other dormant structure.
Fermented fodder that is stored in a silo or other container for later use as animal feed.
The prepared area of soil where seeds are planted or sown, often requiring specific conditions for optimal growth.
A device used for applying liquids, such as pesticides or herbicides, to crops or other plants.
The process by which soil particles are pressed together, often reducing pore space and restricting root growth and water movement.
The process by which water moves through soil, affecting nutrient availability and plant growth.
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soil, affecting nutrient availability and plant growth.
The amount of dissolved salt in soil, affecting plant growth and soil structure.
The process by which soil structure is negatively affected, often due to compaction, erosion, or other factors, leading to reduced fertility and plant growth.
The proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles in soil, affecting water movement, aeration, and nutrient availability.
The process of preparing soil for planting or sowing, often involving mechanical tools such as plows or cultivators.
A form of conservation tillage that involves tilling only a narrow strip of soil where seeds will be planted, leaving the remainder of the field untilled.
A collection of seeds from various plant species, often used for conservation or research purposes.
A device used for sowing seeds in rows or other patterns, often used for planting crops such as wheat or corn.
A tool used to calculate the amount of soil amendments needed to improve soil fertility or other properties, often based on soil test results.
A process of analyzing soil samples to determine nutrient levels, pH, and other properties that affect plant growth.
The process of treating seeds with chemicals or other substances to protect them from pests, diseases, or environmental stress.
The number of animals that can be grazed on a given area of land without causing overgrazing or other negative effects.
The study of living organisms in soil, including bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms, and their interactions with each other and with plants.
A method of farming that aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, often involving practices such as crop rotation, conservation tillage, and integrated pest management. Sustainable agriculture also provides environmental benefits such as carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation.
The overall condition of soil, including its physical, chemical, and biological properties, and its ability to support plant growth and maintain ecosystem functions. Soil health is important for maintaining agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability.
The amount of water held in soil, affecting plant growth and nutrient availability. Soil moisture is an important factor for determining agricultural productivity and ecosystem functioning.
The portion of soil made up of decaying plant and animal material, affecting soil structure, nutrient availability, and water holding capacity. Soil organic matter is an important component of soil health and agricultural productivity.
A vertical section of soil that displays the different layers or horizons that make up the soil, often used to assess soil properties and fertility. Soil profile analysis is an important tool for understanding soil health and making informed agricultural management decisions.
The ability of a seed to germinate and produce a viable plant, affected by factors such as age, storage conditions, and genetics.
The process of artificially raising soil temperature, often used to extend the growing season or promote early growth of crops.
A method of managing forests that aims to balance the needs of environmental protection, social responsibility, and economic viability, often involving practices such as selective harvesting and reforestation.
A disease that affects plants and is caused by pathogens present in the soil, often leading to reduced yield or plant death.
A material added to soil to improve its physical, chemical, or biological properties, often including materials such as compost, lime, or fertilizer.
A systematic study of soil properties and characteristics in a given area, often used to inform land use and management decisions.
The mechanical manipulation of soil to prepare it for planting or to control weeds and pests.
The upper layer of soil that is rich in organic matter and nutrients, often the most fertile part of the soil.
A method of farming on steep slopes that involves creating flat, level areas of land supported by retaining walls, often used to reduce erosion and increase crop yields.
An organism that has been genetically modified by adding genes from another species, often used to produce crops with desirable traits such as resistance to pests or herbicides.
The process by which plants release water vapor into the air through small pores on their leaves, often regulating temperature and moisture in the plant and surrounding environment.
The process of separating grain from the rest of the plant, often using machines or tools such as a thresher or flail.
A measure of the amount of heat accumulated over time, often used to predict plant growth and development.
The loss of soil due to repeated tillage or other forms of soil disturbance, often leading to decreased soil productivity and increased sedimentation in nearby waterways.
The depth to which soil is disturbed during tillage, often affecting soil structure and nutrient availability.
The rate at which water vapor is released from a plant through transpiration, often influenced by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and wind.
A method or pattern of tilling soil, often determined by the type of crop being grown, the size of the field, and other factors.
The directional growth or movement of a plant in response to an external stimulus, such as light, gravity, or touch.
A tool used to measure soil moisture tension, often used to determine when irrigation is needed.
A weather condition in which a layer of warm air traps cooler air near the ground, often leading to increased air pollution and reduced visibility.
The movement of nutrients and other substances from one part of a plant to another, often driven by the plant’s internal transport system.
A tool used to measure the depth to which soil is disturbed during tillage, often used to optimize tillage practices for soil health and productivity.
A group of spiny, weedy plants often considered a pest in agricultural settings.
Fruit that grows on trees, such as apples, pears, and peaches, often requiring specific growing conditions and management practices.
A swollen, underground stem of a plant, such as a potato or yam, often used as a food source.
A motorized vehicle used in agriculture for plowing, tilling, and other tasks.
A framework or structure used to support climbing plants, often used in grape or tomato production.
A substance used to bind or stabilize soil or mulch, often used in erosion control or landscaping.
The process of covering a roof or structure with plant material, such as straw or palm leaves, often used in traditional or sustainable building practices.
Small, slender insects that can damage crops by feeding on leaves, flowers, and fruit.
A type of fertilizer that releases nutrients slowly over time, often used to improve nutrient uptake and reduce environmental impact.
A plant that has been genetically modified to express a desired trait, often using genetic engineering techniques.
The continuous movement of water and dissolved nutrients through a plant from the roots to the leaves, driven by transpiration and plant physiology.
The science and practice of maintaining healthy, attractive turfgrass for aesthetic or functional purposes, often involving mowing, fertilization, and pest control.
Damage to plants caused by extreme temperatures, often leading to reduced growth, yield, or quality.
The maximum level of exposure or stress that a plant can withstand without significant damage or loss in yield or quality.
A segment of DNA that can move or transpose from one location to another within the genome, potentially affecting gene expression and function.
A B vitamin important for plant growth and metabolism, often added to fertilizer or applied as a foliar spray.
The application of fertilizer, compost, or other soil amendments on the surface of the soil, often used to supplement soil nutrients and improve plant growth.
The bud at the tip of a stem or branch that controls growth and branching patterns in a plant.
The process of moving a plant from one location to another, often used to establish seedlings or to move mature plants to a new location.
A type of edible nut that grows on trees, such as almonds, walnuts, and pecans, often used in culinary applications.
A type of grass often used in traditional thatching practices, such as African thatching grass or vetiver grass.
A mineral element required in small quantities for plant growth and health, such as iron, zinc, or copper.
The loss of topsoil due to tillage practices, often leading to reduced soil fertility and productivity.
An organism that has been genetically modified to express a desired trait, often using genetic engineering techniques.
The rate at which a plant releases water vapor through the stomata in its leaves, often influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and wind.
The threshold at which a system or process undergoes a rapid and irreversible change, often used in the context of climate change and environmental management.
A composting method that involves burying organic matter in a trench or pit, often used in garden or small-scale composting systems.
A type of grass often used for lawns, sports fields, and other recreational or ornamental purposes, such as Kentucky bluegrass or Bermuda grass.
The process of removing excess plant growth or fruit, often used to improve yield, quality, or plant health.
The level of exposure to a toxic substance at which negative effects on plant growth, yield, or health become evident.
The process of forming or developing tubers, often used in potato production.
The range of environmental conditions within which a plant can grow and function, often influenced by factors such as temperature, light, and soil moisture.
A crop that has been genetically modified to express a desired trait, often using genetic engineering techniques.
The mammary gland of cows and other milk-producing animals, from which milk is extracted.
A type of flower cluster where multiple stems arise from a single point, resembling an umbrella.
Plants or crops that have not been treated with fertilizers or have not received enough nutrients.
Higher ground or terrain above low-lying areas, typically used for crop production.
A nitrogen-rich compound used as a fertilizer in agriculture.
The shrubs, bushes, and low-growing plants found beneath the canopy of trees in a forest or woodland.
Referring to soil that has not been washed out or depleted of its nutrients by excess water or leaching.
A method of irrigating crops by delivering water directly to the root zone through underground pipes or tubes.
Referring to a type of plant growth habit where stems grow vertically upwards.
The practice of growing crops or raising animals in urban areas, typically on small plots or in community gardens.
Referring to a plant that has a single flower or inflorescence per stem.
A device used for measuring the amount of moisture in the soil.
A farming practice where a single crop is grown on a specific area of land for an entire season.
The leaves of a plant that are located towards the top of the stem.
A type of synthetic resin used in the production of fertilizers, particleboard, and other agricultural materials.
The movement of nutrient-rich water from deeper ocean layers towards the surface, which can benefit marine plant and animal life.
A rootstock or stem used for grafting or budding a desired cultivar onto.
A nitrogen-containing base found in RNA that is involved in protein synthesis.
The process by which plants absorb nutrients from the soil through their roots.
The amount of a particular input or resource (e.g. fertilizer, water) that is actually used by a plant or crop.
A type of radiation from the sun that can affect plant growth and development.
Having no branches or lateral shoots.
The practice of sowing a second crop underneath an already established crop, typically used for pasture or green manure.
Not fertilized; lacking nutrients required for growth.
Composed of a single cell.
Referring to a forest or stand of trees in which there is a mix of different age classes.
Having a single leaflet.
Failing to produce a desired yield or outcome.
The rate at which plants absorb nutrients or other substances from the soil or air.
A nitrogen-rich fertilizer commonly used in agriculture.
A crop grown for its practical use, such as fuel or fiber.
The act of making use of something, such as a resource or crop.
A small, fleshy projection hanging from the back of the soft palate in some animals, such as cows and horses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea, often used in agriculture to regulate the release of nitrogen in fertilizers.
A nitrogenous waste product excreted by birds and reptiles, often used as a fertilizer.
The liquid waste excreted by mammals, often used as a fertilizer in agriculture.
The practical value of a crop or animal in terms of its usefulness to humans.
The usefulness of a crop or animal for a specific purpose, such as meat or milk production.
A rare green mineral in the garnet group, sometimes used as a soil amendment in agriculture.
A genus of herbaceous plants in the lily family, sometimes used in traditional medicine and as a wildflower.
The layer of vegetation growing beneath the canopy of trees in a forest.
Feed that has not undergone a fermentation process, often used as a dietary supplement for livestock.
The consistency or similarity of a crop or animal population with regards to desirable traits.
A group of plants or animals that share certain characteristics.
A plant that is grown for food, usually eaten raw or cooked.
A piece of land where grapes are grown to produce wine.
The cultivation of grapevines.
Related to the medical care of animals.
A process of composting organic waste with the help of earthworms.
A method of growing crops in vertically stacked layers, often in urban areas.
The cultivation of earthworms for use in composting and soil improvement.
A process of inducing plants to flower by exposing them to prolonged periods of cold temperatures.
The difference between the amount of moisture in the air and the amount of moisture that the air can hold at a given temperature.
A device used to vaporize liquids or herbs for inhalation.
An organism that transmits disease from one host to another.
A type of symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi, in which the fungus helps the plant absorb nutrients from the soil.
A substance used to expel intestinal worms from animals.
A plant that climbs or trails along the ground, often producing fruit.
A flavoring derived from the seeds of the vanilla orchid.
The process of exchanging air in a confined space to maintain a healthy environment.
The degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism.
A microscopic infectious agent that replicates itself inside living cells.
A small rodent that is commonly found in agricultural fields.
A temporary pool of water that is typically formed in the spring and supports a unique ecosystem.
The pressure exerted by a vapor in a closed container at a given temperature.
A sour liquid made by fermenting alcohol, often used as a preservative or condiment.
A material used to prevent the transmission of water vapor and air between two spaces.
A type of oil that is extracted from plants and used for cooking, cosmetics, and other purposes.
Having different colors or patterns on the leaves or other parts of a plant.
A parasitic mite that feeds on honeybees and can weaken or kill entire hives.
The process of converting a liquid into a vapor.
A method of plant propagation that does not involve seeds, such as by cuttings or layering.
A type of legume that is commonly used as a forage crop for livestock.
The strength, health, or vitality of a plant or animal.
The ability of a plant or animal to resist infection by a specific virus.
A small fly that is attracted to fermenting fruit and vegetables, and is often used as a model organism in genetics research.
The tendency of a substance to evaporate or vaporize at a given temperature.
The practice of managing a vineyard, including tasks such as pruning, fertilization, and pest control.
A fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants, causing wilting and discoloration of leaves and stems.
A trained professional who provides support to veterinarians in the care of animals.
A type of compost that is produced using earthworms to break down organic waste.
A mineral that is often used as a soil amendment to improve water retention and aeration.
A machine used to sow seeds evenly and quickly, by using suction to pick up and place seeds.
A device used to measure the osmolality of a solution by measuring the vapor pressure of the solvent.
A type of mycorrhiza in which the fungal partner forms arbuscules and vesicles within the root cells of the plant partner.
A business strategy in which a company owns or controls multiple stages of production, from raw materials to finished products.
A device used to measure the flow rate of a fluid by creating a pressure difference.
The practice of medicine and surgery for animals, including diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A type of filter that uses earthworms to break down organic matter and improve water quality in wastewater treatment systems.
The pressure exerted by the vapor of a substance in a closed container.
A method of agriculture in which crops are grown in vertically stacked layers, often using hydroponic systems.
The process of exposing certain plants to cold temperatures to induce flowering.
The study of viruses and their effects on living organisms.
A type or cultivar of a plant species that is distinguished by certain characteristics, such as yield, flavor, or disease resistance.
The specialized tissue in plants that transports water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant.
A tiny infectious agent that can only reproduce within a living host cell and can cause disease in plants and animals.
A sour liquid made from the fermentation of alcohol, often used as a condiment or for pickling.
A substance or treatment that kills or expels intestinal worms in animals.
The plant life in a particular area or ecosystem.
The science and practice of grape cultivation for winemaking.
A nutrient that is essential for growth and maintenance of health in animals, often obtained through diet.
Relating to or resembling a wasp or hornet.
Water that has been used and contains pollutants or other contaminants.
The continuous process by which water moves between the Earth’s surface, atmosphere, and oceans.
The practice of controlling and conserving water resources for agricultural, industrial, or other uses.
The measure of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water, used to determine its suitability for various purposes.
The level at which groundwater is found below the surface of the Earth.
The measure of how efficiently water is used in agriculture or other industries.
A plant that grows where it is not wanted and competes with desired crops or vegetation.
An area of land that is saturated with water and supports plants adapted to wet soil conditions.
A cereal grain that is commonly used for human consumption and animal feed.
A barrier of trees, shrubs, or other vegetation that is planted to protect crops or buildings from wind damage.
Energy generated by the movement of air across a turbine or windmill.
The process by which wind removes and transports soil and sediment from one area to another.
A variety of wheat that is planted in the fall and harvested in the summer of the following year.
The practice of using earthworms to decompose organic waste materials and create nutrient-rich compost.
The practice of preventing or eliminating unwanted plant species in agricultural or other land use settings.
The contamination of water resources by various human and natural sources, often resulting in adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health.
A long, narrow pile of hay, straw, or other agricultural material that is used for drying or storage.
An area of land covered with trees and other woody vegetation.
The condition in which the demand for water exceeds the available supply, often resulting in negative impacts on plant growth and yield.
The total amount of weed seeds present in the soil in a given area, which can persist and germinate for years.
The level of weed infestation at which control measures are necessary to prevent yield losses or other negative impacts.
The condition in which soil is saturated with water, causing reduced oxygen availability and negative impacts on plant growth.
The process of removing pollutants and contaminants from wastewater before it is released into the environment.
A handheld tool used for cutting grass or weeds in tight or hard-to-reach areas.
The temperature measured by a thermometer that is wrapped in a wet cloth and exposed to air flow, used to determine humidity levels.
The perceived decrease in temperature caused by the combination of wind and low air temperature.
The amount of water that soil can retain and make available to plants.
Legal or contractual rights to use water resources for specific purposes, often subject to government regulation.
A crop that is planted in the fall and grown over the winter months to protect soil from erosion and provide other benefits.
Nutrient-rich organic matter produced by earthworms during the process of decomposition.
Diseases that are transmitted through contaminated water, often caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
Legal or contractual rights to use water resources for specific purposes, often subject to government regulation.
The process by which water seeps into soil or other porous materials.
The practice of using water resources efficiently and responsibly to minimize waste and reduce negative environmental impacts.
A machine that creates air flow to prevent frost damage to crops.
A measure of the degree of water stress experienced by crops or other plants, often used to determine irrigation needs.
A layer of material, often fabric or plastic, used to prevent weed growth in gardens or other agricultural settings.
The distribution of water use over time in a given area, often used to assess water management needs.
The total amount of water used to produce goods or services, including the water used in production and transportation.
The infrastructure used to transport and deliver water to various users, including pipes, canals, and other facilities.
A crop that is planted to serve as a windbreak for other crops or vegetation.
The ability of weeds to withstand or adapt to herbicides or other control measures, often resulting in reduced effectiveness of these methods over time.
The process of analyzing water samples to determine their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, used to assess suitability for various purposes.
The practice of using vegetation or other measures to prevent the erosion of soil by wind.
The level of weed infestation in a given area, often measured by the density and species of weeds present.
The level at which underground water is found, often used to determine the depth at which wells should be drilled.
A comprehensive strategy for managing water resources and minimizing waste, often developed by government agencies or organizations.
The amount of water available for use in a given area, often determined by natural sources or infrastructure.
The practice of using water resources efficiently and responsibly to minimize waste and reduce negative environmental impacts.
The process of restoring or creating wetland habitats to support biodiversity, water quality, and other ecosystem services.
The movement of water over the land surface, often caused by precipitation or irrigation, that can lead to erosion and nutrient loss.
The process of removing impurities or contaminants from water to make it suitable for various uses, such as drinking, irrigation, or industrial processes.
An area that provides suitable conditions for the survival and reproduction of wildlife species, often consisting of food, water, shelter, and space.
Renewable energy generated by the movement of air, often harnessed by wind turbines.
A long, narrow pile of hay, straw, or other agricultural material that is dried or turned to facilitate decomposition or storage.
The process of collecting and analyzing meteorological data to predict weather patterns and inform agricultural decision-making.
The practice of managing or reducing weed populations in agricultural or other settings, often using mechanical, chemical, or biological methods.
The contamination of water resources by various sources, including agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and human activities.
A condition in which plants experience reduced growth or productivity due to insufficient water availability, often caused by drought or other environmental factors.
A genus of bacteria that cause plant diseases such as black rot and bacterial blight.
Having a dry climate or soil, often used to describe regions where water is scarce.
A landscaping technique that conserves water by using drought-tolerant plants and minimal irrigation.
A plant that is adapted to living in dry conditions, often characterized by succulent leaves or stems.
A chemical substance that is foreign to an organism, often referring to pesticides or other agricultural chemicals.
Adapted to living in dry environments, often referring to plants.
a sugar alcohol derived from xylose, often used as a sweetener in animal feed.
a sugar found in many plant materials, often used as a carbohydrate source in animal feed.
feeding on wood, often referring to insects or fungi that damage crops or trees.
the tissue in plants that transports water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
the art of engraving on wood, often used to create signs or labels for agricultural products.
attracted to or living in wood, often referring to insects or fungi that damage crops or trees.
a genus of beetles that bore into trees, causing damage to crops and forests.
An enzyme that breaks down xylan, a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls. Xylanase is often used as a feed supplement for livestock, as it can improve the digestibility of feed and increase nutrient absorption.
A yellow pigment found in many plants, often used as a natural food colorant or feed supplement for livestock. Xanthophyll is also important for photosynthesis, as it helps to absorb light energy and protect the plant from damage caused by excess light.
The influence of pollen from one plant on the characteristics of another plant, often used in breeding and hybridization. Xenia can result in changes to traits such as fruit size, color, and flavor, and is an important factor in crop improvement and plant breeding.
Shaped like a sword, often used to describe leaves or plant structures. Xiphoid structures can be found in a variety of plant and animal species, and are often adaptations for defense or resource acquisition.
A technique used to determine the crystal structure of minerals and other substances, often used in soil analysis. X-ray diffraction works by shining X-rays on a sample and analyzing the diffraction pattern that results, allowing scientists to determine the arrangement of atoms in the sample.
An animal adapted to living in dry environments, often referring to reptiles or insects.
A landscaping technique that uses drought-tolerant plants and other water-efficient features to conserve water in arid or semi-arid climates.
An organism that feeds on wood, such as termites or certain beetles.
Plants that are adapted to living in dry conditions, often characterized by succulent leaves or stems. These types of plants have evolved a variety of adaptations to cope with water scarcity, such as reducing water loss through transpiration, storing water in specialized tissues, or having deep root systems to access underground water sources.
The amount of crops or products produced per unit of land or labor.
The yellow portion of an egg, which contains nutrients and provides food for developing embryos.
A type of freshwater crayfish found in Australia and some other regions.
A type of fungus used in food production, such as bread or beer.
A symptom of plant disease in which leaves turn yellow due to nutrient deficiencies or other factors.
The maximum amount of crops or products that can be produced under ideal growing conditions.
Fibers spun into long, continuous threads used in textile production.
A young animal, usually between one and two years old.
An evergreen tree or shrub with poisonous berries, often used for ornamental purposes or in traditional medicine.
Young animals, such as calves or foals, typically raised for future breeding or production.
A genus of plants with sword-shaped leaves and tall spikes of white or yellow flowers, often used for ornamental purposes or in traditional medicine.
A membranous sac that surrounds the yolk in eggs and provides nutrients to developing embryos.
A fungal disease that affects wheat plants and can cause significant yield losses.
A hybrid fruit developed from blackberry, raspberry, and dewberry plants, often used in jams or desserts.
A type of fish found in the Pacific Ocean, often used in sushi or other dishes.
A type of freshwater fish found in North America, often used for food or recreational fishing.
A viral infection that affects fish, especially young fish, and can cause mortality or stunted growth.
The act of catching or harvesting yabbies, often for recreational or commercial purposes.
A plant with fern-like leaves and clusters of white or yellow flowers, often used for medicinal or ornamental purposes.
A tropical root vegetable similar to taro, often used in Caribbean and Latin American cuisine.
A viral disease that affects a variety of crops, including cassava, cucurbits, and legumes, and can cause significant yield losses.
The natural variation in climate or other environmental factors from one year to the next, which can affect various systems such as agriculture, water resources, and ecosystems.
A measure of the amount of crop produced per unit of land area, typically expressed in metric tons per hectare.
The official currency of Japan, used for trade and commerce in Japan and internationally.
A plant that has recently germinated and is in its early growth stages, typically characterized by small size and fragile stems.
A group of proteins found in egg yolks, which play a role in embryonic development and are also used in food processing for their emulsifying and gelling properties.
A fungal disease that affects wheat plants and can cause significant yield losses.
The process of raising and caring for young animals, including feeding, housing, and disease control.
The difference between actual crop yields and the maximum yields that could be achieved under ideal conditions, due to factors such as poor soil fertility or inadequate irrigation.
A viral disease that affects wheat plants and can cause significant yield losses.
A coconut that is harvested before it reaches maturity, and is often used for its refreshing juice or soft flesh.
The process of corralling or gathering livestock, often done before transport or for sorting purposes.
A decrease in crop yield that can occur when multiple desirable traits are combined in a single crop variety.
A pest that affects rice plants and can cause significant yield losses.
A food ingredient made from yeast cells, often used as a flavor enhancer or source of vitamins.
A type of trellis used in grapevine cultivation, consisting of two arms that form a Y shape and support the vines.
The maximum number of animals that can be held in a corral or feedlot at one time.
The poisonous nature of yew plants, which can be harmful or fatal to animals that ingest them.
A device used to monitor or trap certain insects, such as whiteflies or aphids, that are attracted to the color yellow.
A condition where plant leaves turn yellow due to a variety of causes, such as nutrient deficiencies or disease.
The change in crop yield that results from a change in management practices, such as irrigation or fertilizer application.
A nutrient-rich structure found in bird and reptile embryos, which provides nourishment until the animal hatches.
The sex-determining chromosome found in male animals, including some livestock species.
The ability of a crop variety to consistently produce high yields across different environmental conditions, such as varying rainfall or temperature. Crop varieties with high yield stability are desirable for farmers as they are less risky and can provide more reliable yields.
A recently emerged leaf on a plant, which is often more tender and susceptible to damage than older leaves. Young leaves are important for photosynthesis and growth of the plant, and their health can have a significant impact on overall plant productivity.
A type of insect trap that uses a sticky surface and a yellow color to attract and capture flying insects, such as thrips or leaf miners. Yellow sticky traps are a non-toxic and effective method for monitoring or controlling insect populations in agricultural crops.
A factor that contributes to overall crop yield, such as the number of seeds per plant or the weight of individual fruits. Yield components are important for crop management and breeding, as they can be used to identify traits that have a significant impact on overall crop productivity.
A map that shows the variation in crop yields across a field, often used for precision agriculture or yield monitoring. Yield maps can provide valuable information to farmers about the productivity of their fields, and can be used to identify areas that may require additional management or input.
The maximum yield that a crop variety can achieve under ideal growing conditions, without being limited by factors such as pests or disease.
The long-term trend in crop yields over time, often used to identify patterns or changes in agricultural productivity.
A type of hybrid berry plant, similar to blackberry or raspberry, that is grown commercially in some regions.
The reduction in crop yield that can result from factors such as drought, pests, or disease.
A viral disease that affects plants in the family Fabaceae, such as soybeans or cowpeas, and can cause significant yield losses.
A wooden or metal frame used to harness draft animals, such as oxen or horses, for plowing or other farm work.
A parameter used in crop breeding to quantify the negative effects on yield that can result from combining multiple desirable traits in a single crop variety.
A freshwater crustacean that is sometimes farmed for its meat, particularly in Australia.
A textile material made from fibers such as wool or cotton, which can be used for a variety of agricultural applications such as weaving or netting.
The yellow, nutrient-rich portion of an egg, which serves as a source of energy and nutrients for developing embryos.
A viral disease that can affect humans and some primates, transmitted by mosquitoes and sometimes present in tropical agricultural regions.
A protein found in corn that can be used in industrial applications, such as adhesives or coatings.
An essential nutrient for plants, involved in many metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis and enzyme activity.
A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans, such as avian influenza or rabies.
The process of dividing a region into different areas for different land uses, such as residential, commercial, or agricultural.
A type of summer squash, often grown in home gardens and used in cooking.
A bird species found in the Caribbean and parts of South America, sometimes hunted as a game bird.
Small, drifting animals that live in aquatic environments, often an important food source for fish and other aquatic animals.
The initial cell formed when two gamete cells (such as sperm and egg) fuse during fertilization, which will eventually develop into a new individual organism.
A type of domestic cattle found primarily in India and Africa, known for their tolerance of hot, humid climates and resistance to some diseases.
A farming practice where seeds are planted directly into untilled soil, without disturbing the soil structure, in order to reduce soil erosion, conserve moisture, and improve soil health.
A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans, often through direct contact or consumption of contaminated food products, such as avian influenza, rabies, or Lyme disease.
A legal document that regulates land use and development within a particular jurisdiction, often including provisions related to agricultural zoning, commercial zoning, and residential zoning.
A microorganism that can cause disease in both animals and humans, such as E. coli or Salmonella.
A type of soil that has distinct horizontal layers or zones, often varying in texture, structure, or nutrient content.
A specialized structure found in certain fungi and algae that produces motile spores called zoospores.
The highest point or peak of a particular crop or livestock production cycle, such as the peak of egg production in laying hens.
A complex of enzymes found in yeast cells, involved in the fermentation of sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
A group of appointed officials responsible for administering zoning ordinances and making decisions related to land use and development.
A livestock management system where animals are kept confined and fed cut or harvested forage, rather than grazing on pasture.
Relating to or organized according to distinct zones or regions, such as zonal crop management.
A type of bacterial colony that forms a gelatinous matrix, often found in wastewater treatment systems or natural environments.
The science or study of fermentation processes, particularly in the production of alcoholic beverages.
A system for classifying soils based on their physical and chemical properties, particularly their horizon development and thickness.
A metallic element used in some fertilizers and soil amendments, particularly those designed for acidic soils.
A motile spore produced by certain fungi and algae, often involved in dispersal or colonization of new habitats.
A crop management strategy that accounts for variations in soil properties and environmental conditions across distinct zones within a field.
A common form of zinc fertilizer, often used to correct zinc deficiencies in crops.
A specialized spore produced by some fungi and algae, resulting from the fusion of two haploid cells.
A colonial organism that has characteristics of both plants and animals, such as certain types of coral or sponges.
The practice of deriving pleasure from cruelty to animals, often associated with illegal activities such as animal fighting or poaching.
A visual representation of the different land use zones within a particular jurisdiction, often used for planning and development purposes.
A herbicide used to control grasses and broadleaf weeds in soybean and cotton crops.
A process used in oil and gas drilling operations to prevent fluid migration between different geological zones.
A pesticide used to control rodents and other small mammals, often used in agricultural settings.
A mild, gentle breeze, often important for pollination and seed dispersal in plants.
Characterized by distinct zones or regions, such as zonate leaf patterns in certain plants.
A farming practice that involves dividing a field into different zones based on soil characteristics, and tilling each zone differently to optimize plant growth.
A method used in geographic information systems (GIS) to calculate statistical values for different zones or regions within a spatial dataset.
An infection caused by a zoonotic pathogen, often resulting from exposure to animals or animal products.
The practice of raising and managing animals for commercial or subsistence purposes, often involving domesticated species.
A legal permission granted by a zoning board to deviate from certain provisions of a zoning ordinance, often for specific reasons related to hardship or necessity.
A molecule with both positive and negative charges, often found in amino acids and other biological compounds.
A specialized tool used to collect and analyze small aquatic animals, such as plankton, from a water source.
A farming practice that relies solely on natural inputs, such as cow dung and urine, for plant growth and soil health.
A local law that regulates land use and development within a particular jurisdiction, often including provisions related to agricultural zoning.
An area of bacterial growth inhibition surrounding a disk containing a particular antimicrobial substance, often used to determine antimicrobial sensitivity.
A virus that can be transmitted from animals to humans, often resulting in serious illnesses or epidemics, such as Ebola or SARS.
The study of the distribution and geographic range of animals, often influenced by factors such as climate and habitat.
A biogeographic region characterized by distinct zones of vegetation and soil, often determined by factors such as latitude and climate.
A type of bacteria that produces enzymes that break down complex organic compounds, often involved in processes such as fermentation and decomposition.
A sports tactic where players are assigned to defend specific areas or zones of the playing field, often used in soccer and other team sports.
A sudden and rapid increase in the abundance of zooplankton in a particular body of water, often resulting from favorable environmental conditions such as warm temperatures or nutrient availability.
A white, powdery compound composed of zinc and oxygen, commonly used as a fertilizer and soil amendment to correct zinc deficiencies in crops.
The process by which a pathogen, such as a virus or bacterium, is transmitted from animals to humans, often involving direct or indirect contact with infected animals or animal products.
A farming practice that involves selecting and growing crop varieties based on their adaptability to different zones or regions within a field or farm, often resulting in higher yields and better resource utilization.
Agriculture is a complex and important industry that plays a critical role in providing food and other resources to people around the world. By following best practices for agriculture, you can optimize your crop yields, protect the environment, and ensure food security. We hope that this agriculture dictionary has provided you with valuable information and insights about agriculture and farming practices.
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